ANTIBACTERIAL, ANTIOXIDANT AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF PALESTINIAN MALLOW, MALVA SYLVESTRIS L.
Keywords:Mallow Mallow, Antioxidant, DPPH, Phytol
Objective: To evaluate antibacterial, antioxidant activities, the existence of the major secondary metabolites, and volatile compounds in methanolic extracts from M. sylvestris leaves.
Methods: Antibacterial activity was assessed using a well diffusion method. Antioxidant activity was assessed using ABTS●+and DPPH● free radical scavenging assays. Phytochemical screening for secondary metabolites and volatile compounds were done following standard techniques and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS).
Results: Methanolic extracts exhibited moderate antibacterial activity compared with the positive control against the gram-negative Klebsiella pneumoniae and the gram-positive bacteria’s Staphylococcus aureus by 47.2 and with 47.1% respectively. The average percentage of scavenging was 97.82±0.05 and 79.49±0.4 for ABTS•+and DPPH●, correspondingly. Total phenols were quantitatively estimated and found to be 78.9±9.55 mg GAE/g. Phytochemical screening assays revealed the presence of a wide range of phytochemical groups such as alkaloids flavonoids, phenols, tannins, quinones, saponins, steroids, tannins, terpenoides with at least sixteen volatile compounds detected in the plant.
Conclusion: The present study confirmed the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of M. sylvestris and the existence of is the volatile compounds (phytol), which mediate, even partially, the antioxidant and the claimed analgesic activity of the plant.
Qazi MA, Molvi K. Herbal medicine: a comprehensive review. Int J Pharm Res 2016;8:1-5.
Partha Pradip A, Satya Bhusan P. History of Indian traditional medicine: a medical inheritance. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:421.
Ashraf K, Halim H, Lim SM, Ramasamy K, Sultan S. In vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative studies of four different extracts of Orthosiphon stamineus, Gynura procumbens and Ficus deltoidea. Saudi J Biol Sci 2020;27:417-32.
Rasouli H, Yarani R, Pociot F, Popovic-Djordjevic J. Anti-diabetic potential of plant alkaloids: revisiting current findings and future perspectives. Pharmacol Res 2020;155:104723.
Maema LP, Potgieter M, Masevhe NA, Samie A. Antimicrobial activity of selected plants against fungal species isolated from South African AIDS patients and their antigonococcal activity. J Complemen Integr Med 2020. Doi:10.1515/jcim-2019-0087
Ben Shabat S, Yarmolinsky L, Porat D, Dahan A. Antiviral effect of phytochemicals from medicinal plants: applications and drug delivery strategies. Drug Delivery Transl Res 2020;10:354-67.
Ahmad R, Khan MA, Srivastava AN, Gupta A, Srivastava A, Jafri TR, et al. Anticancer potential of natural dietary products: a comprehensive review. Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2020;20:122-36.
Baker DA. Plants against Helicobacter pylori to combat resistance: An ethnopharmacological review. Biotechnol Rep (Amst) 2020;26:e00470.
Bernhoft A. A brief review on bioactive compounds in plants. Bioactive compounds in plants-benefits and risks for man and animals. Norwegian Academy Sci Lett 2010;50:11-7.
Razavi SM, Zarrini G, Molavi G, Ghasemi G. Bioactivity of Malva sylvestris L., a medicinal plant from Iran. Iran J Basic Med Sci 2011;14:574-9.
Ali-shtayeh MS, Hamad AK. Biodiversity in palestine: West Bank and Gaza strip. Cairo, Egypt; 1995.
Gasparetto JC, Martins CAF, Sirlei SH, Otuky MF, Pontarolo R. Ethnobotanical and scientific aspects of Malva sylvestris L.: a millennial herbal medicine. J Pharm Pharmacol 2012;64:172-89.
Gurbuz I, Ozkan AM, Yesilada E, Kutsal O. Anti-ulcerogenic activity of some plants used in folk medicine of Pinarbasi (Kayseri, Turkey). J Ethnopharmacol 2005;101:313-8.
Perez Gutierrez RM. Evaluation of the hypoglycemic activity of the leaves of Malva parviflora in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Food Func 2012;3:420-7.
Ishtiaq S, Hassan SS, Niaz U, Saeed MA. Identification and evaluation of the counter-irritant potential of crude extract of Malva parviflora L. by WHO-recommended methods. Pak J Pharm Sci 2012;25:589-94.
Qawasmeh A, Obied HK, Raman A, Wheatley W. Influence of fungal endophyte infection on phenolic content and antioxidant activity in grasses: interaction between Lolium perenne and different strains of Neotyphodium lolii. J Agric Food Chem 2012;60:3381-8.
Kokkaiah I, Sethupandian G, Palanichamy M. Antimicrobial activity of selected Indian folk medicinal plants: Myristica fatua, Alstonia boonei, Helicteres isora, Vitex altissima and Atalantia racemosa. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017;10:277-80.
Harborne AJ. Phytochemical methods a guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. Springer Science and Business Media; 1998.
Qawasmeh A, Bourke C, Lee S, Gray M, Wheatley W, Sucher NJ, et al. GC-MS analysis of volatile secondary metabolites in “Mediterranean” and “Continental” Festuca arundinacea (Poaceae) infected with the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum strain AR542. Acta Chrom 2011;23:621-8.
Basheer Salimia R, Lorenzi S, Batarseh F, Moreno Sanz P, Emanuelli F, Grando MS. Molecular identification and genetic relationships of palestinian grapevine cultivars. Mol Biotechnol 2014;56:546-56.
Ighbareyeh JMH, Cano Ortiz A, Suliemieh AAA, Ighbareyeh MMH, Cano E. Phytosociology with other characteristics biologically and ecologically of the plant in Palestine. Am J Plant Sci 2014;5:3104.
ARIJ. Towards a sustainable Palestine: The status of the environment in the occupied Palestinian territories. Bethlehem, Palestine: Applied Research Institute of Jerusalem; 2010.
Ali-Shtayeh MS, Jamous RM. Red list of threatened plants" of the West Bank and Gaza Strip and the role of botanic gardens in their conservation. Biodiversity and Environmental Science Studies Series No , Biodiversity and Environmental Research Center (BERC), Biodiversity and Biotechnology Research Unit (BBRU), Til, Nablus, Palestine 2002;2:1-46.
Crowfoot GMH, Baldensperger L. From cedar to hyssop; 1932.
Dulger B, Gonuz A. Antimicrobial activity of certain plants used in Turkish traditional medicine. Asian J Plant Sci 2004;104:107.
Coelho de Souza G, Haas APS, von Poser GL, Schapoval EES, Elisabetsky E. Ethnopharmacological studies of antimicrobial remedies in the south of Brazil. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;90:135-43.
Mehran M, Ahmadi R, Kazemi MS, Takzaree N. Comparative evaluation of the antibacterial effect of Malva sylvestris L. extract and chlorohexidine on Streptococcus mutans in vitro study. Tehran Univ Med J 2018;76:602-7.
Pietta P, Simonetti P, Mauri P. Antioxidant activity of selected medicinal plants. J Agric Food Chem 1998;46:4487-90.
Stankovic N, Mihajilov Krstev T, Zlatkovic B, Stankov Jovanovic V, Mitic V, Jovic J, et al. Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of traditional medicinal plants from the Balkan peninsula. NJAS-Wagen J Life Sci 2016;78:21-8.
Sudhanshu NR, Sandhya M, Menghani E. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of Malva sylvestris. Int J Curr Res Rev 2012;4:67-72.
Mohajer S, Taha RM, Ramli RB, Mohajer M. Phytochemical constituents and radical scavenging properties of Borago officinalis and Malva sylvestris. Ind Crops Prod 2016;94:673-81.
Farhan H, Rammal H, Hijazi A, Badran B. Preliminary phytochemical screening and extraction of polyphenol from stems and leaves of a Lebanese plant Malva parviflora L. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2012;4:55-9.
Tabaraki R, Yosefi Z, AsadiI GHA. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of Malva sylvestris L. J Res Agric Sci 2012;8:59-68.
Al-Rubaye AF, Kaizal AF, Hameed IH. Phytochemical screening of methanolic leaves extracts of Malva sylvestris. Int J Pharmacogn Phytochem Res 2017;9:537-52.
Kumar D, Rajakumar R. GC-MS analysis of bioactive components from the ethanol extract of Avicennia marina leaves. Innovare J Sci 2016;4:9-12.