• Amer Ramadan Cairo University
  • Gamal Soliman Salman bin Abdulaziz University
  • Sawsan S. Mahmoud National Research Centre
  • Salwa M. Nofal National Research Centre
  • Rehab Fawzy Abdel-rahman Pharmacology Department National Research Centre


Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential hepatoprotective and hepatotherapeutic activities of propolis against D-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide (D-GaIN/LPS)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced in rats by intra peritoneal injection of GalN (300 mg/kg) and LPS (30 μg/kg). In the hepatoprotection experiment, propolis was administered orally for 10 days before induction of hepatoxicity. In another experiment (hepatotherapy), propolis was dosed immediately after GalN/LPS injection.

Results: Injection of GalN/LPS to rats induced hepatic damage that was manifested by a significant increase in the activities of aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and total bilirubin in serum. Liver homogenate of intoxicated animals had the lower content of reduced glutathione with increased levels of the hepatic malondialdehyde and caspase-3 enzyme. Histological data presented marked damage in liver sections of intoxicated rats. Oral dosing of propolis before or once immediately after intoxication reversed these altered parameters near to normal values.

Conclusion: Liver apoptotic events such as DNA fragmentation and increased caspase-3 activity observed during intoxication were prevented by pre and post- propolis treatment. These results suggest that propolis could afford significant protection and therapy in alleviation of hepatotoxicity.


Keywords: Propolis, Galactosamine, Lipopolysaccharide, Hepatotoxicity, Rats


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How to Cite
Ramadan, A., G. Soliman, S. S. Mahmoud, S. M. Nofal, and R. F. Abdel-rahman. “HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND HEPATOTHERAPUTIC EFFECTS OF PROPOLIS AGAINST D-GALACTOSAMINE/LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE-INDUCED LIVER DAMAGE IN RATS”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 7, no. 2, Dec. 2014, pp. 372-8, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ijpps/article/view/3925.
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