MENTAL HEALTH AND QUALITY OF LIFE DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC IN INDIAN POPULATION

Abstract

Objective: As there is a dearth of researches targeting the Indian population on this issue, we decided to conduct a survey to assess the psychological impact of COVID-19 on mental health and quality of life of Indians.


Methods: In this Cross-Sectional study, a total of 2245 participants above 16 y of age were included. Mental health variables were assessed via depression, anxiety and stress subscale (DASS-21), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI-7), Patient health questionnaire (PHQ-15), Quality of life (QoL-5) and social media exposure.


Results: The multivariate logistic regression demonstrated female (OR-1.17, 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.38) had significantly higher depression scores whereas, housewife had higher depression (OR-1.68, 95% CI: 1.33 to 2.13), anxiety (OR-1.64, 95% CI: 1.15 to 2.35), insomnia (OR-1.32, 95% CI: 1.14 to 1.53), somatic symptoms (OR-1.76, 95% CI: 1.21 to 2.57). Front line workers had a higher psychological impact with increased scores of anxieties (OR-1.23, 95% CI: 0.79 to 1.53), stress (OR-1.82, 95% CI: 0.76 to 2.55), insomnia (OR-1.65, 95% CI: 1.31 to 2.09). Lower education level had significantly higher score in depression (OR-1.14, 95% CI: 0.73 to 1.32), insomnia (OR-2.42, 95% CI: 2.07 to 2.84), somatic symptoms (OR-2.59, 95% CI: 1.80 to 3.37). Poor physical health, social media exposure was significantly associated with heightened anxiety score.


Conclusion: There is a need for psychological intervention as the dynamics and severity of COVID-19 is rapidly changing. These findings could guide the public health authorities to target and implement health measures to combat the pandemic.

Keywords: Mental health, Quality of Life, COVID-19, General Population, India

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

1. Coronavirus Graphs: Worldwide Cases and Deaths; 2020. Available from: https://www.worldmeters.info/coronavirus [Last accessed on 05 Jul 2020]
2. Xiao C. A novel approach of consultation on 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19)-related psychological and mental problems: structured letter therapy. Psychiatry Investigation 2020;17:175–6.
3. Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, Wang X, Zhou L, Tong Y. Early transmission dynamics in wuhan, china, of novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia. New England J Med 2020;382:1199-207.
4. COVID-19: too little, too late? The Lancet 2020;395:755.
5. Day M. Covid-19: surge in cases in Italy and South Korea makes pandemic look more likely Br Med J 2020;368:m751.
6. Mak I, Chu C, Pan P, Yiu M, Chan V. Long-term psychiatric morbidities among SARS survivors. General Hospital Psychiatry 2009;31:318–26.
7. Xiang Y, Yang Y, Li W, Zhang L, Zhang Q, Cheung T. Timely mental health care for the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak is urgently needed. Lancet Psychiatry 2020;7:228–9.
8. Rubin E, Baden L, Morrissey S, Campion E. Medical journals and the 2019-nCoV outbreak. New England J Med 2020;382:866–6.
9. India Situation Report; 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/india/emergencies/india-situation-report [Last accessed on 05 Jul 2020]
10. Lovibond P, Lovibond S. The structure of negative emotional states: comparison of the depression anxiety stress scales (DASS) with the beck depression and anxiety inventories. Behaviour Res Ther 1995;33:335–43.
11. McAlonan G, Lee A, Cheung V, Cheung C, Tsang K, Sham P. Immediate and sustained psychological impact of an emerging infectious disease outbreak on health care workers. Canadian J Psychiatry 2007;52:241–7.
12. Niharika D, Niharika B, Aishwarya T, Nikitha A, Butool R, Ibrahim M, et al. Coronavirus-a virus in learning. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2020;12:7-10.
13. Kroenke K, Spitzer R, Wiliams J. The PHQ-15: validity of a new measure for evaluating the severity of somatic symptoms. Psychosomatic Med 2002;64:258–66.
14. Lindholt JS, Ventegodt S, Henneberg EW. Development and validation of QoL 5 for clinical databases. a short, global and generic questionnaire based on an intergrated theory of the quality of life. Eur J Surg 2002;168:107–13.
15. Wang C, Pan R, Wan X. A longitudinal study on the mental health of general population during the COVID-19 epidemic in China. Brain Behavior Immunity 2020;87:40–8.
16. Rossie R, Socci V, Pacitti F, Di LG, Di MA, Siracusano A. R mental health outcomes among frontline and second-line health care workers during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in italy. JAMA Network Open 2020;3:e2010185.
17. Pradeep K Gau, Vinay Bhatia, Parveen Singla, Abhishek Sharma, Gagandeep Kaur, Gurpreet Singh. Unified approach to detect covid-19 in patients. JCR 2020;7:2518-23.
18. Viljoen M, Panzer A. Proinflammatory cytokines: a common denominator in depression and somatic symptoms? Canadian J Psychiatry Revue Canadienne De Psychiatrie 2005;50:128.
19. Singh S, Badaya S. Health care in rural India: A lack between need and feed. South Asian J Cancer 2014;3:143–4.
20. Wang C, Pan R, Wan X, Tan W, Xu L. Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020;17:1729.
21. World Health Organisation. Health care for women subjected to intimate partner violence or sexual violence: A clinical handbook. Geneva; 2014.
22. Giorgi G, Arcangeli G, Mucci N, Cupelli V, Giorgi G. Economic stress in workplace: the impact of fear the crisis on mental health. Work 2015;51:135–42.
23. Nicola M, Alsafi Z, Sohrabi C, Kerwan A, Al-Jabir A, Iosifidis C. The socio-economic implications of the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19): a review. Int J Surgery 2020;78:185-93.
24. Lai J, Ma S, Wang Y, Cai Z, Hu J. Factors associated with mental health outcomes among health care workers exposed to coronavirus disease 2019. JAMA Netw Open 2020;3:e203976.
25. Qin C, Zhou L, Hu Z, Zhan S, Yang S, Tao Y. Dysregulation of immune response in patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. Clin Infect Dis 2020;12:248.
26. Segerstrom S, Miller G. Psychological stress and the human immune system: a meta-analytic study of 30 y of inquiry. Psychological Bulletin 2004;130:601–30.
27. Gao J, Zheng P, Jia Y, Chen H, Mao Y, Chen S. Mental health problems and social media exposure during COVID-19 outbreak. SSRN Electronic Journal 2020;15:e0231924.
28. WHO. Director-General’s remarks at the media briefing on 2019 novel coronavirus; 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/director-general-s-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-2019novel-coronavirus. [Last accessed on 08 Feb 2020].
29. Hiremath P, Suhas K, Manjunath M, Shettar M. COVID 19: impact of lock-down on mental health and tips to overcome. Asian J Psychiatry 2020;51:102088.
Statistics
14 Views | Downloads
Citatons
How to Cite
TOMAR, B. S., P. RAJ, S. SUMAN, P. SINGH, and D. NATHIYA. “MENTAL HEALTH AND QUALITY OF LIFE DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC IN INDIAN POPULATION”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 12, no. 12, Nov. 2020, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2020v12i12.39345.
Section
Original Article(s)