• Behzad Foroutan Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran
  • Nasrin Razavianzadeh Islamic Azad University
  • Diana Anderson School of Life Sciences University of Bradford


Objective: The in vitro measurement of drug-induced apoptosis provides a mechanism-based test for the chemosensitivity of tumor cells isolated from a patient or from a specific cell line. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of p-glycoprotein reversal agents on apoptosis and necrosis in Burkitt lymphoma cells. These effects were determined by microscopic observation and by electrophoretic separation of DNA fragments.

Methods: We demonstrated induction of apoptosis in Burkitt lymphoma Raji Thymidine Kinase+ (TK+)and TK- cells using different subclasses of p-glycoprotein reversal agents. A low dose of doxorubicin was also used. The selective clonal expansion of mutant lymphocytes is based upon the phenotypic properties of TK-deficient cells. The first phase of the present study involved morphological analyses and DNA degradation on agarose gel electrophoresis. The second phase analyzed DNA damage using the Comet assay and tail moments calculated with Komet imaging software.

Results: Electrophoretic separation resulted in a ladder pattern, indicating that the p-glycoprotein reversal agents were able to induce apoptosis and necrosis. The morphological frequency of apoptosis and necrosis in the cells was significantly increased. Most p-glycoprotein reversal agents showed an increase in tail moments in the Comet assay.

Conclusion: The results indicate that indomethacin and quercetin may help to overcome chemoresistance in Burkitt’s lymphoma.


Keywords: Apoptosis, Necrosis, P-glycoprotein reversal agents, NHL cell-line model, Burkitt’slymphoma


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How to Cite
Foroutan, B., N. Razavianzadeh, and D. Anderson. “OVERCOMING CHEMORESISTANCE IN NON-HODGKIN LYMPHOMA PRELIMINARY STUDIES OF APOPTOSIS AND NECROSIS BY P-GLYCOPROTEIN REVERSAL AGENTS”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 7, no. 2, Dec. 2014, pp. 382-8, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ijpps/article/view/3935.
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