• ARPAN SAHA Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Bharat Pharmaceutical Technology, Amtali, Tripura, India 799130
  • SANTANU MALLIK Department of Pharmaceutics, Bharat Pharmaceutical Technology, Amtali, Tripura, India 799130



Active pharmaceutical ingredients, Coronavirus, Pharmaceutical industry, COVID-19, Health, Health and Government policy


The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was characterized as a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020. The present pandemic has caused an intolerable impact on the health structure as well as the pharmaceutical sector, which in ultimatum has created enormous issues in the everyday lives of the patient community. On the other hand, the situation may appear in short and long-term time-horizon and need identification along with appropriate planning to reduce their socio-economic burden. The Indian pharmaceutical industry is the world's third-largest drug producer by volume. India supplies affordable and low-cost generic drugs to millions of people around the globe and operates more than 250 United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and United Kingdom Medicine and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (UKMHRA) approved plants. Given the Indian pharmaceutical industry, the source of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) for multiple diseases is much crucial part of the Pharma industry’s strategic plan to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. China is the top global producer and exporter of APIs by volume and Indian pharmaceutical industries are also rely heavily on APIs from China for the production of their medicine formulations by importing around 70 percent of the total requirement. However, the present pandemic situation has exposed the world's over-reliance on China in terms of API import and bound world leaders to fig. out sustainable alternatives.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

SANTANU MALLIK, Department of Pharmaceutics, Bharat Pharmaceutical Technology, Amtali, Tripura, India 799130

Associate Professor

Department of Pharmaceutics

References [Internet]. Japan: What is an API; c2020. Available from: [Last accessed on 07 Aug 2020]

Koenig SG, Bee C, Borovika A, Briddell C, Colberg J, Humphrey GR, et al. A green chemistry continuum for a robust and sustainable active pharmaceutical ingredient supply chain. ACS Sustainable Chem Eng 2019;7:16937-51.

Chandna H. What are APIs and how they threaten India’s status of a ‘pharmacy to the World’, The Print [Internet]; 2020. The print essential: [about 2 p.]. Available from: [Last accessed on 10 Aug 2020]

Oxford Analytica, Indian pharma will struggle to meet COVID-19 demand. Emerald Expert Briefings, (oxan-db); 2020.

Hangargekar CB, Quazi RS, Joshi AA. A review on COVID-19-a global battle between life and death. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2020;12:19-24.

Chatterjee P. Indian pharma threatened by COVID–19 shutdowns in China. Lancet 2020;395:675.

Vaid R. Scarcity of China salt might cause antibiotics shortage in India, Outlook; 2020. Available from: [Last accessed on 11 Aug 2020]

Ramsey L, Premack R. The US could face shortages of crucial medicines like antibiotics and a heart drug because of the coronavirus, Business Insider India; 2020. Available from: [Last accessed on 12 Aug 2020]

Athavale S. Indian pharma sector faces supply shortage the spike in costs due to the coronavirus in China, The Logical Indian; 2020. Available from: news/pharma-price-india-china-coronavirus-19774. [Last accessed on 12 Aug 2020].

Yewale DA. Make in India Initiative: success or failure. Stud Ind Place Names 2020;40:148-60.

Bishnoi V. Make in India initiative: a key for sustainable growth. South Asian J Marketing Management Res 2019;9:21-7.

Parameshwar K, Pamu S, Sandeep K, Suresh CA. Review novel coronavirus. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2020;13:12-7.

Rawat V. Coronavirus situation in China may hike API prices impact profits of Indian Pharma, from the economic times; 2020. Available from: https://cfo.economictimes. [Last accessed on 12 Aug 2020]

Sharma U. Finding the silver lining about coronavirus pandemic, Express Pharma; 2020. Available from: [Last accessed on 12 Aug 2020]

Al-Tameemi KA, Kabakli R. Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV): disease briefings. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2020;13:22-7.

Zou P, Huo D, Li M. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on firms: a survey in guangdong province, China. Glob Health Res Policy 2020;5:41.

Moorthy AK. COVID-19 hit India's pharma sector but it can use a shortage of Chinese APIs to emerge as a dominant player, News18; 2020. Available from: [Last accessed on 12 Aug 2020]

Raghavan P. Explained why the China factor has led to an increase in the price of heparin; will other drugs follow. The Indian Express; 2020. Available from: https:// [Last accessed on 13 Aug 2020]

Bansal M, Walia MK. Covid 19-an overview on epidemiology, symptoms, prevention, management, treatment, and role of health workers. Int J Appl Pharm 2020;12:36-41.

Dey S. Supply constraints push up COVID–19 drug prices by 50%, The Times of India; 2020. Available from: [Last accessed on 13 Aug 2020]

Ayati N, Saiyarsarai P, Nikfar S. Short and long term impacts of COVID-19 on the pharmaceutical sector. DARU J Pharm Sci 2020;1-7

Sharma U. Strategic short term measures needed on the API front: Pharma experts, Express Pharma; 2020. Available from: [Last accessed on 13 Aug 2020]

Santoki AA, Parekh MH. Marketing strategies during covid-19. JCR 2020;7:2309-15.

Jha R, Sharma A. India's pharmaceutical industry: global supply chain and governance in the post-COVID-19 world; 2020. p. 1-25.

ET Bureau. Government launches schemes to boost production of local bulk drugs medical devices, The Economic Times; 2020. Available from: news/policy/govt-launches-schemes-to-boost-production-of-local-bulk-drugs-medical-devices/77196277. [Last accessed on 13 Aug 2020]

Kumar A, Luthra S, Mangla SK, Kazancoglu Y. COVID-19 impact on sustainable production and operations management. Sust Oper Comp 2020;1:1-7.

Sharma GD, Talan G, Jain M. Policy response to the economic challenge from COVID-19 in India: a qualitative enquiry. J Public Affairs 2020;e2206:1-16.

Ahmed A, Chakraborty D, Bhattacharyya R. The recent coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic: a review of issue for Indian pharmaceutical exports. Foreign Trade Rev 2020;55:418-35.

Sharma A, Gupta P, Jha R. COVID-19: impact on health supply chain and lessons to be learnt. J Health Management 2020;22:248–61.

Elavarasan RM, Pugazhendhi R. Restructured society and environment: a review on potential technological strategies to control the COVID-19 pandemic. Sci Total Environ 2020;725:1-18.

Meghana A, Aparna Y, Chandra SM, Sanjeev S. Emergency preparedness and response (EP and R) by pharmacy professionals in India: Lesson from the COVID-19 pandemic and the way forward. Res Social Adm Pharm 2020. p. S1551-7411, 3043-X.

Piatek OI, Ning JCM, Touchette DR. National drug shortages worsen during COVID-19 crisis: proposal for a comprehensive model to monitor and address critical drug shortages. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2020;77:1778-85.

Kuo S, Ou HT, Wang CJ. Managing medication supply chains: lessons learned from Taiwan during the COVID-19 pandemic and preparedness planning for the future. J Am Pharm Assoc 2020. p. 1-4.

Liu SCH, Huang MC, Horng SS. TFDA takes actions to help mitigate supply disruption or shortages of drug. J Formosan Med Assoc 2020;119:1459-60.

Mircheva RD. A crisis within the crisis: the impact of COVID-19 and brexit on supply chains in the pharmaceutical industry. Central Eastern European Online Library 2020;64:352-68.

Biswas D, Sultana P. Policing during the time of corona: The Indian context. Policing 2020;0:1-8.



How to Cite

SAHA, A., and S. MALLIK. “IMPACT OF ACTIVE PHARMACEUTICAL INGREDIENT (API) SCARCITY IN PHARMACEUTICAL SECTORS AMIDST COVID-19 PANDEMIC”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 12, no. 12, Dec. 2020, pp. 22-25, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2020v12i12.39396.



Review Article(s)