CURRENT TREATMENTS FOR TYPE 2 DIABETES, THEIR SIDE EFFECTS AND POSSIBLE COMPLEMENTARY TREATMENTS

Authors

  • Arshpreet Kalsi Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida
  • Shivangi Singh Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida
  • Nancy Taneja Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida
  • Samiksha Kukal Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida
  • Shalini Mani Jaypee Institute of Information technology. A-10, Sector 62, Noida, India

Keywords:

T2D, Drugs, Complementary medicine, Anti-oxidants, Nutraceuticals, Oxidative stress

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder in the endocrine system and characterized by a varied and complex pathophysiology. World-wide there is a dramatic increase in the number of patients for type 2 diabetes, and hence it is becoming a serious threat to the health of mankind. Commercially a large number of drugs belonging to different classes such as biguanides, sulfonylureas, meglitinides and thiazolidinediones are available to control and treat the type 2 diabetic patients. However, none of these drugs are known to completely cure the diabetic phenotype. On the other hand, a long term usage of these drugs exhibits several side effects and complications to different organs of the body which ultimately lead to cardiovascular problems, liver disease, kidney disease and weight gain too. Like many other drugs, these anti-diabetic drugs are also known to interfere and interact with other non anti-diabetic drugs, if the patient is taking them for a long time. To combat the side effects of these drugs, complementary treatments may be found as a preventive measure and more promising in the management of disease phenotypes in these patients. As per reports available from a large number of studies, these complementary therapies may include physical exercise, dietary supplements and Nutraceuticals.

 

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Shalini Mani, Jaypee Institute of Information technology. A-10, Sector 62, Noida, India

Assistant Professor (Senior)

Department of Biotechnology

References

The expert committee on the diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. report of the expert committee on the diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 2000;23:s4-19.

The expert committee on the diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. report of the expert committee on the diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 2003;26:s5-20.

Olokoba AB, Obateru OA, Olokoba LB. Type 2 diabetes mellitus: a review of current trends. Om Med J 2012;27:269-73.

Mohan V, Sandeep S, Deepa R, Shah B, Varghese C. Epidemiology of type 2 diabetes: Indian scenario. Indian J Med Res 2007;125:217-30.

International diabetes federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas. 6th edn. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation; 2013.

Hauner H. The mode of action of thiazolidinediones. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2002;2:s10-5.

Greenfield JR, Chisholm DJ. Thiazolidinediones–mechanisms of action. Aust Prescr 2004;27:67–70.

Singh S, Loke YK. Thiazolidinediones and cardiovascular disease: balancing benefit and harm. Geriatr Aging 2008;11:179-83.

Endo Y, Suzuki M, Yamada H, Horita S, Kunimi M, Yamazaki O, et al. Thiazolidinediones enhance sodium-coupled bicarbonate absorption from renal proximal tubules via PPARγ-dependent nongenomic signaling. Cell Met 2011;13:550-61.

Klip A, Leiter LA. Cellular mechanism of action of metformin. Diabetes Care 1990;13:696-704.

Fowler MJ. Diabetes treatment, part 2: oral agents for glycemic management. Clin Diabetes 2007;25:131-4.

Proks P, Reimann F, Green N, Gribble F, Ashcroft F. Sulfonylurea stimulation of insulin secretion. Diabetes 2002;51:368-76.

Aquilante CL. Sulfonylurea pharmacogenomics in Type 2 diabetes: the influence of drug target and diabetes risk polymorphisms. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2010;8:359–72.

Luna B, Feinglos MN. Oral agents in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am Fam Physician 2001;63:1747-57.

Hekimsoy Z, Biberoğlu S, Cömlekçi A, Tarhan O, Mermut C, Biberoğlu K. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-induced hypoglycemia in a malnourished patient with severe infection. Eur J Endocrinol 1997;3:304-6.

Davis T, Edelman SV. Insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes. Med. Clin North Am 2004;88:865-95.

Miller CD, Phillips LS, Ziemer DC, Gallina DL, Cook CB, El-Kebbi IM. Hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med 2001;161:1653-9.

Giovannucci E, Harlan DM, Archer MC, Bergenstal RM, Gapstur SM, Habel LA, et al. Diabetes and cancer: a consensus report. CA: Cancer J Clin 2010;60:207-21.

Heslin MJ, Newman E, Wolf RF, Pisters PW, Brennan MF. Effect of systemic hyperinsulinemia in cancer patients. Cancer Res 1992;52:3845-50.

Giovannucci E. Metabolic syndrome, hyperinsulinemia, and colon cancer: a review. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86:836S-42S.

Hauner H, Stockamp B, Haastert B. Prevalence of lipohypertrophy in insulin-treated diabetic patients and predisposing factors. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 1996;104:106-10.

American diabetes association. Physical activity/exercise and diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004;27:58-62.

Sigal RJ, Kenny GP, Wasserman DH, Sceppa CC. Physical activity/exercise and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004;27:2518-39.

Umpierre D, Ribeiro PAB, Kramer CK, LeitaËœo CB, Zucatti ATN, Azevedo MJ, et al. Physical activity advice only or structured exercise training and association with HbA1c levels in type 2 diabetes. JAMA 2011;305:1790-9.

Jeon CY, Lokken P, Frank B, Hu FB, Van Dam RM. Physical activity of moderate intensity and risk of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2007;30:744–52.

Boule´ NG, Haddad E, Kenny GP, Wells GA, Sigal RJ. Effects of exercise on glycemic control and body mass in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. JAMA 2001;286:1218–27.

Ishii T, Yamakita T, Sato T, Tanaka S, Fujii S. Resistance training improves insulin sensitivity in NIDDM subjects without altering maximal oxygen uptake. Diabetes Care 1998;21:1353–5.

Cuff DJ, Meneilly GS, Martin A, Ignaszewski A, Tildesley HD, Frohlich JJ. Effective exercise modality to reduce insulin resistance in women with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2003;26:2977–82.

Dunstan DW, Daly RM, Owen N, Jolley D, de Courten M, Shaw J, et al. High-intensity resistance training improves glycemic control in older patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2002;25:1729–36.

Castaneda C, Layne JE, Munoz-Orians L, Gordon PL, Walsmith J, Foldvari M, et al. A randomized controlled trial of resistance exercise training to improve glycemic control in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2002;25:2335–41.

Hedge SV, Adhikari P, Kotian S, Pinto VJ, D’souza S, D’souza V. Effect of 3-month yoga on oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes with or without complications. Diabetes Care 2011;34:2208-10.

Yang K, Bernardo LM, Sereika SM, Conroy MB, Balk J, Burke LE. Utilization of 3-month yoga programfor adults at high risk for type 2 diabetes: a pilot study. Evidence-Based Complementary Altern Med 2011;2011:1-6.

Malhotra V, Singh S, Singh KP, Sharma SB, Madhu SV, Gupta P, et al. Effects of yoga asanas and pranayama in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Indian J Tradit Knowl 2004;3:162-7.

Shantakumari N, Sequeira S, Eldeeb R. Effect of a yoga intervention on hypertensive diabetic patients. J Adv Inter Med 2012;1:60-3.

Singh S, Malhotra V, Singh KP, Madhu SV, Tandon OP. Role of yoga in modifying certain cardiovascular functions in type-2 diabetic patients. JAPI 2004;52:203-6.

Nielsen JV, Joensson EA. Low-carbohydrate diet in type 2 diabetes: stable improvement of bodyweight and glycemic control during 44 months follow-up. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2008;5:14.

Tay J, Luscombe-Marsh ND, Thompson CH, Noakes M, Buckley JD, Wittert GA, et al. A very low-carbohydrate, low–saturated fat diet for type 2 diabetes management: a randomized trial. Diabetes Care 2014;37:2909-18.

Garg A, Bantle JP, Henry RR, Coulston AM, Griver KA, Raatz SK, et al. Effects of varying carbohydrate content of diet in patients with non—insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Jama 1994;271:1421-8.

Risérus U, Willett WC, Hu FB. Dietary fats and prevention of type 2 diabetes. Prog Lipid Res 2009;48:44-51.

Barnard ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJA, Mcgrievy GT, Gloede L, Green A, et al. A low-fat vegan diet and a conventional diabetes diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled, 74-wk clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89:1588-96.

Barnard ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJA, Mcgrievy GT, Gloede L, Jaster B, et al. A low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2006;29:1777-83.

Meyer KA, Kushi LH, Jacobs DR, Slavin J, Sellers TA, Folsom AR. Carbohydrates, dietary fiberand incident type 2 diabetes in older women. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:921-30.

Chandalia M, Garg A, Lutjohann D, Bergmann KV, Grundy SM, Brinkley LJ. Beneficial effects of high dietary fibre intake in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. NEJM 2000;342:1392-8.

Fairfield KM, Fletcher RH. Vitamins for chronic disease prevention in adults. JAMA 2002;287:3116-26.

Montonen J, Knekt P, Arivnen RJ, Reunanen A. Dietary antioxidant intake and risk of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004;27:362-6.

Palomer X, Clemente JMG, Blanco-Vaca F, Mauricio D. Role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diab Obes Met 2008;10:185-97.

Song Y, Wang L, Pittas AG, Gobbo LCD, Zhang C, Manson JE, et al. Blood 25-Hydroxy vitamin d levels and incident type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Diabetes Care 2013;36:1422-8.

Mitri J, Dawson-Hughes B, Hu FB, Pittas AG. Effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on pancreatic β-cell function, insulin sensitivity, and glycemia in adults at high risk of diabetes: the calcium and vitamin d for diabetes mellitus (CaDDM) randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;94:486-94.

Pittas AG, Dawson-Hughes B, Li T, Dam RMV, Willett WC, Manson JE, et al. Vitamin D and calcium intake in relation to type 2 diabetes in women. Diabetes Care 2006;29:650-6.

Mathieu C, Gysemans C, Giulietti A, Bouillon R. Vitamin D and diabetes. Diabetologia 2005;48:1247-57.

Liu S, Lee M, Song Y, Denburgh MV, Cook NR, Manson JE, et al. Vitamin E and risk of type 2 diabetes in the women’s health study randomized controlled trial. Diabetes 2006;55:2856-62.

Lonn E, Yusuf S, Hoogwerf B, Pogue J, Yi Q, Zinman B, et al. Effects of vitamin e on cardiovascular and microvascular outcomes in high-risk patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care 2002;25:1919-27.

Dakhale GN, Chaudhari HV, Shrivastava M. Supplementation of vitamin c reduces blood glucose and improves glycosylated hemoglobin in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind study. Adv Pharm Sci 2011;2011:1-5.

Harding AH, Wareham NJ, Bingham SA, Khaw KT, Luben R, Welch A, et al. Plasma vitamin c level, fruit and vegetable consumption, and the risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med 2008;168:1493-9.

Paolisso G, Amore AD, Balbi V, Volpe C, Galzerano D, Giugliano D, et al. Plasma vitamin C affects glucose homeostasis in healthy subjects and in non-insulin-dependent diabetics. Am J Physiol: Endocrinol Metab 1994;226:261-8.

Pandey M, Verma RK, Saraf SA. Nutraceuticals: new era of medicine and health. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2010;3:11-5.

Allen RW, Schwartzman E, Baker WL, Coleman CI, Phung OJ. Cinnamon use in type 2 diabetes: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Annu Fam Med 2013;11:452-9.

Baker LW, Gutierrez-Williams G, White CM, Kluger J, Coleman CI. Effect of cinnamon on glucose control and lipid parameters. Diabetes Care 2008;31:41–3.

Khan A, Safdar M, Khan MMA, Khattak KN, Anderson RA. Cinnamon Improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2003;26:3215-8.

Augusti KT, Sheela CG. Antiperoxide effect of S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide, an insulin secretagogue, in diabetic rats. Experientia 1996;52:115-9.

Parastouei K, Ravanshad S, Mostaphavi H, Setoudehmaram E. Effects of garlic powder tablet on blood sugar, plasma lipids and blood pressure in type 2 diabetic patients with hyperlipidemia. Feyz J Kashan Uni Med Sci 2005;9:1-7.

Ashraf R, Aamir K, Shaikh AR, Ahmed T. Effects of garlic on dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2005;17:60-4.

Sterti R. Berberine for diabetes mellitus type 2. Nat Med J 2010;2:5-6.

Lee SY, Kim WS, Kim KH, Yoon MJ, Cho HJ, Shen Y, et al. Berberine, a natural plant product, activates amp-activated protein kinase with beneficial metabolic effects in diabetic and insulin-resistant states. Diabetes 2006;56:2256-64.

Zhang Y, Li X, Zou D, Liu W, Yang J, Zhu N, et al. Treatment of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia with the natural plant alkaloid berberine. Endocrine Care 2008;7:2559–65.

Dong H, Wang N, Zhao L, Lu F. Berberine in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systemic review and meta-analysis. Evidence-Based Complementary Altern Med 2012;2012:1-12.

Published

01-03-2015

How to Cite

Kalsi, A., S. Singh, N. Taneja, S. Kukal, and S. Mani. “CURRENT TREATMENTS FOR TYPE 2 DIABETES, THEIR SIDE EFFECTS AND POSSIBLE COMPLEMENTARY TREATMENTS”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 7, no. 3, Mar. 2015, pp. 13-18, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ijpps/article/view/3962.

Issue

Section

Review Article(s)