SYNTHESIS OF COPPER OXIDE NANOPARTICLES USING DESMODIUM GANGETICUM AQUEOUS ROOT EXTRACT
Keywords:Copper oxide nanoparticles, Desmodium gangeticum, Antioxidant, LLC-PK1 cell line
Objective: In this present work, we have synthesized Copper oxide nanoparticles using Desmodium gangeticum root extracts and explored its biological activity.
Methods: The Copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by the reduction process. Copper oxide nanoparticles were purified and dried. Scanning electron micrograph analysis showed evenly distributed Copper oxide nanoparticles and was confirmed by UV visible spectroscopy. Characterization of Copper oxide nanoparticles was done with Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR) and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). Gram negative and gram positive, bacteria were used to evaluate its antibacterial activity.
Results: Reducing potential and free radical scavenging ability of Copper oxide nanoparticles was measured and found to be high. Indeed, toxicological evaluation in LLC-PK1 cell line suggests that Copper oxide nanoparticles were safer for biomedical applications.
Conclusion: Biologically synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles show significant antioxidant effect and found to be less toxic as compared to the precursor thereby can be used as potential candidate species for various biomedical applications.
Ponce AA, Klabunde KJ. Chemical and catalytic activity of copper nanoparticles prepared via metal vapor synthesis. J Mol Catal A: Chem 2005;225:1-6.
Huang Z, Cui F, Kang H, Chen J, Zhang X, Xia C. Highly dispersed silica-supported copper nanoparticles prepared by precipitationâˆ’gel method: a simple but efficient and stable catalyst for glycerol hydrogenolysis. Chem Mater 2008;20:5090-9.
Dang TMD, Le TTT, Fribourg-Blanc E, Dang MC. Synthesis and optical properties of copper nanoparticles prepared by a chemical reduction method. Adv Nat Sci: Nanosci Nanotech 2011;2:15009.
Cheng X, Zhang X, Yin H, Wang A, Xu Y. Modifier effects on chemical reduction synthesis of nanostructured copper. Appl Surf Sci 2006;253:2727-32.
Wu C, Mosher BP, Zeng T. One-step green route to narrowly dispersed copper nanocrystals. J Nanopart Res 2006;8:965-9.
Yu W, Xie H, Chen L, Li Y, Zhang C. Synthesis and characterization of monodispersed copper colloids in polar solvents. Nanoscale Res Lett 2009;4:465-70.
Zhang HX, Siegert U, Liu R, Cai WB. Facile fabrication of ultrafine copper nanoparticles in organic solvent. Nanoscale Res Lett 2009;4:705-8.
Zhang X, Yin H, Cheng X, Hu H, Yu Q, Wang A. Effects of various polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooils (Tweens) and sodium dodecyl sulfate on reflux synthesis of copper nanoparticles. Mater Res Bull 2006;41:2041-8.
Salavati-Niasari M, Fereshteh Z, Davar F. Synthesis of oleylamine capped copper nanocrystals via thermal reduction of a new precursor. Polyhedron 2009;28:126-30.
Woo K, Kim D, Kim JS, Lim S, Moon J. Ink-Jet printing of cuâˆ’ag-based highly conductive tracks on a transparent substrate. Langmuir 2008;25:429-33.
Park BK, Kim D, Jeong S, Moon J, Kim JS. Direct writing of copper conductive patterns by ink-jet printing. Thin Solid Films 2007;515:7706-11.
Tilaki R, Mahdavi S. Size, composition and optical properties of copper nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in liquids. Appl Phys A 2007;88:415-9.
Zhang ZL, Jameson R, Zhao HW, Liu Y, Zhang SH, Zhang C. Beam dynamics design of an RFQ for a planned accelerator, which uses a direct plasma injection scheme. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res Sect A 2008;592:197-200.
Mallick K, Witcomb MJ, Scurrell MS. In situ synthesis of copper nanoparticles and poly o-toluidine: A metalâ€“polymer composite material. Eur Polym J 2006;42:670-5.
Khalil MM, Ismail EH, El-Baghdady KZ, Mohamed D. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using olive leaf extract and its antibacterial activity. Arabian J Chem 2013;1878-5352.
Kurian GA, Suryanarayanan S, Raman A, Padikkala J. Antioxidant effects of ethyl acetate extract of Desmodium gangeticum root on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury in rat hearts. Chin Med 2010;5:3.
Avasthi B, Tewari J. A preliminary phytochemical investigation of Desmodium gangeticum DC. J Am Pharm Assoc 1955;44:625-7.
Mishra PK, Singh N, Ahmad G, Dube A, Maurya R. Glycolipids and other constituents from Desmodium gangeticum with antileishmanial and immunomodulatory activities. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2005;15:4543-6.
Kurian GA, Yagnesh N, Kishan RS, Paddikkala J. Methanol extract of Desmodium gangeticum roots preserves mitochondrial respiratory enzymes, protecting rat heart against oxidative stress induced by reperfusion injury. J Pharm Pharmacol 2008;60:523-30.
Kurian GA, Philip S, Varghese T. Effect of aqueous extract of the Desmodium gangeticum DC root in the severity of myocardial infarction. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;97:457-61.
Ghosal S, Bhattacharya SK. Desmodium alkaloids II. Chemical and pharmacological evaluation of D. gangeticum. Planta Med 1972;22:434-40.
Ghosh D, Anandakumar A. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of gangetinâ€“A pterocarpenoid from Desmodium gangeticum. Indian J Pharmacol 1983;15:391.
Singh N, Mishra PK, Kapil A, Arya KR, Maurya R, Dube A. Efficacy of Desmodium gangeticum extract and its fractions against experimental visceral leishmaniasis. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;98:83-8.
Rathi A, Rao CV, Ravishankar B, De S, Mehrotra S. Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity of the water decoction Desmodium gangeticum. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;95:259-63.
Garcia EJ, Oldoni T, Alencar SMD, Reis A, Loguercio AD, Grande R. Antioxidant activity by DPPH assay of potential solutions to be applied on bleached teeth. Braz Dent J 2012;23:22-7.
Patel A, Patel A, Patel N. Determination of polyphenols and free radical scavenging activity of Tephrosia purpurea linn leaves (Leguminosae). Phcog Res 2010;2:152.
Pise N, Jena K, Maharana D, Gaikwad D, Jagtap T. Free radical scavenging, reducing power, phenolic and biochemical composition of Porphyra species. J Algal Biomass Util 2010;1:29-42.
Valgas C, Souza SMD, SmÃ¢nia EF, SmÃ¢nia Jr A. Screening methods to determine antibacterial activity of natural products. Braz J Microbiol 2007;38:369-80.
Prabhu BM, Ali SF, Murdock RC, Hussain SM, Srivatsan M. Copper nanoparticles exert size and concentration dependent toxicity on somatosensory neurons of rat. Nanotoxicol 2010;4:150-60.
Nath S, Chakdar D, Gope G, Avasthi D. Characterization of CdS and ZnS quantum dots prepared via a chemical method on SBR latex. Nanotechnol 2008;4:1-6.
Theivasanthi T, Alagar M. X-ray diffraction studies of copper nanopowder. Arch Phys Res 2010;1(2):112-7.
Swarnkar R, Singh S, Gopal R. Effect of aging on copper nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in water: structural and optical characterizations. B Mater Sci 2011;34:1363-9.
Pandit N, Patravale V. Design and optimization of a novel method for extraction of genistein. Indian J Pharm Sci 2011;73:184.
Govindarajan R, Vijayakumar M, Shirwaikar A, Rawat AKS, Mehrotra S, Pushpangadan P. Antioxidant activity of Desmodium gangeticum and its phenolics in arthritic rats. Acta Pharm 2006;56:489.
Kurian GA, Shabi M, Paddikkala J. Cardiotonic and anti ischemic reperfusion injury effect of Desmodium gangeticum root methanol extract. Turk J Biochem 2010;35:83-90.