• RITU KUMARI School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, 144411, Punjab, India
  • JAGJIT KAUR School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, 144411, Punjab, India
  • SADIQUE HUSSAIN School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, 144411, Punjab, India


Objective: As of now, the world is struggling with a serious pandemic of disease 2019 Coronavirus (COVID-19), which was emerged from Wuhan in China, originated by the novel coronavirus 2019 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 is a viral illness, which is occurring on a large scale in every nation of the globe. Symptoms of coronavirus mainly include fever, fatigue, cough, headache, pneumonia and in severe condition, there is respiratory distress. The deadly virus alarmed the world to be on high alert as the number of rising cases and the death toll rising as the day passes.

Methods: We have searched for articles of preference and interest systematically in sources like Google Scholar, PubMed, and other outlets.

Results: Management in the case of diabetes is really necessary to decrease their mortality. Certain management parameters need to be followed to take care of patients suffering from both diseases.

Conclusion: In this review, we highlighted the role of different medicines like chloroquine, lopinavir, and hydroxychloroquine for the remedy of this pandemic. We also discussed the chest Computed tomography functions and Real-time polymerase chain reaction for the screening of the outbreak. The center of attention of this review majorly on the care of diabetes throughout the time of the COVID-19 epidemic.

Keywords: Coronavirus, Diabetes, Medicines, Chloroquine, RT-PCR


Download data is not yet available.


1. Zar HJ, Ferkol TW. The global burden of respiratory disease-impact on child health. Pediatr Pulmonol 2014;49:430–4.
2. Bousquet J, Dahl R, Khaltaev N. Global alliance against chronic respiratory diseases. Eur Respir J 2007;29:233–9.
3. Chuchalin AG, Khaltaev N, Antonov AS, Galkin DV, Manakov LG, Antonini P, et al. Chronic respiratory diseases and risk factors in 12 regions of the russian federation. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2014;9:963–74.
4. Payne M, Kjelsberg M. Respiratory symptoms, lung function, and smoking habits in an adult population. Am J Public Health 1964;54:262-7.
5. Bousquet J, Kiley J, Bateman ED, Viegi G, Cruz AA, Khaltaev N, et al. Prioritised research agenda for prevention and control of chronic respiratory diseases. Eur Respir J 2010;36:995-1001.
6. Li X, Xu S, Yu M, Wang K, Tao Y, Zhou Y, et al. Risk factors for severity and mortality in adult COVID-19 inpatients in Wuhan. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2020;146:110-8.
7. Rodriguez Morales AJ, Bonilla Aldana DK, Balbin Ramon GJ, Rabaan AA, Sah R, Paniz Mondolfi A, et al. History is repeating itself: probable zoonotic spill over as the cause of the 2019 novel coronavirus epidemic. Infez Med 2020;1:3-5.
8. Rothana HA, Byrareddy SN. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. J Autoimmun 2020;109. DOI:10.1016/j.jaut.2020.102433
9. Bogoch II, Watts AA, Thomas Bachli A, Huber C, Kraemer MUG, Khan K. Pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan, china: potential for international spread via commercial air travel. J Travel Med 2020;27.
10. Lu H, Stratton CW, Tang YW. Outbreak of pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan, china: the mystery the miracle. J Med Virol 2020;92:401-2.
11. Kirchdoerfer RN, Cottrell CA, Wang N, Pallesen J, Yassine HM, Turner HL, et al. Pre-fusion structure of a human coronavirus spike protein. Nature 2016;531:118–21.
12. Xu X, Chen P, Wang J, Feng J, Zhou H, Li X, et al. Evolution of novel coronavirus from the ongoing Wuhan outbreak and modelling of its spike protein for risk of human transmission. Sci China Life Sci 2020;63:457-60.
13. Gao J, Tian Z, Yang X. Breakthrough: chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies. Biosci Trends 2020;14:72-3.
14. Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang Bo, Song J, et al. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China. N Engl J Med 2020;382:727-33.
15. Lam CWK, Chan MHM, Wong CK. Severe acute respiratory syndrome: clinical and laboratory manifestations. Clin Biochem Rev 2004;25:121–32.
16. Azhar EI, Hui DSC, Memish ZA, Drosten C, Zumla A. The middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS). Infect Dis Clin North Am 2019;33:891–905.
17. Audio transcript of the news briefing held by the State council of china. The national health commission of people’s republic of china; 2020.
18. Zi ZY, Jiang MD, Xu PP, Chen W, Ni QQ, Lu GM, et al. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a perspective from China. Radiology 2020;296.
19. Gandhi RT, Lynch JB, Rio CD. Mild or moderate covid-19. N Engl J Med 2020;383:1757-66.
20. Wang C, Horby PW, Hayden FG, Gao GF. A novel coronavirus outbreak of global health concern. Lancet 2020;395:470-3.
21. He Y, Zhou Y, Liu S, Kou Z, Li W, Farzan M, et al. Receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV spike protein induces highly potent neutralizing antibodies: implication for developing subunit vaccine. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2004;324:773–81.
22. Mungroo MR, Khan NA, Siddiqui R. Novel coronavirus: current understanding of clinical features, diagnosis, pathogenesis, and treatment options. PLOS Pathog 2020;9:297.
23. Varghese D, Samuel LA. Pandemic of the era: covid-19–an overview. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 2020;9:812-38.
24. Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, Wang X, Zhou L, Tong Y, et al. Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia. N Engl J Med 2020;382:1199-207.
25. Wang W, Tang J, Wei F. Updated understanding of the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Wuhan. China J Med Virol 2020;92:441–7.
26. Ren L, Ye-Ming W, Zhi-Qiang W, Zi-Chun X, Li G, Teng X, et al. Identification of a novel coronavirus causing severe pneumonia in human: a descriptive study. Chinese Med J 2020;133:1015-24.
27. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet 2020;395:497–506.
28. Carlos WG, Cruz CSD, Cao B, Pasnick S, Jamil S. Novel wuhan (2019-nCoV) coronavirus. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2020;201:7–8.
29. Lei J, Li J, Li X, Qi X. CT Imaging of the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia. Radiology 2020;295.
30. Patanavanich R, Glantz SA. Smoking is associated with COVID-19 progression: a meta-analysis. Nicotine Tob Res 2020;22:1653-6.
31. Xiong T, Huang F, Liu Q, Peng Y, Xu Y, Wei J, et al. Hypertension is a risk factor for adverse outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019: a cohort study. Ann Med 2020;52:361-6.
32. Guo W, Li M, Dong Y, Zhou H, Zhang Z, Tian C, et al. Diabetes is a risk factor for the progression and prognosis of COVID-19. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2020;e3319.
33. Kanne JP. Chest CT findings in 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infections from Wuhan, China: Key Points for the Radiologist. Radiology 2020;295. radiol.2020200241
34. Pan Y, Guan H. Imaging changes in patients with 2019-nCov. Eur Radiol 2020;30:3612-3.
35. Ng M, Lee EYP, Yang J, Yang F, Li X, Wang H, et al. Imaging profile of the COVID-19 infection: radiologic findings and literature review. Radiology: Cardiothoracic Imaging 2020;2:e200034.
36. Tahamtana A, Ardebili A. Real-time RT-PCR in COVID-19 detection: issues affecting the results. Expert Rev Mol Diagn 2020;20:453-4.
37. Chan JF, Yuan S, Kok K, To KK, Chu H, Yang J, et al. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. Lancet 2020;395:514-23.
38. Stockman LJ, Bellamy R, Garner P. SARS: systematic review of treatment effects. PLOS Med 2006;3:343.
39. Su B, Wang Y, Zhou R, Jiang T, Zhang H, Li Z, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of lopinavir/ritonavir-and efavirenz-based initial antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected patients in a tertiary care hospital in beijing, China. Front Pharmacol 2019;10:1472.
40. Chu CM, Cheng VCC, Hung IFN, Wong MML, Chan KH, Chan KS, et al. Role of lopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of SARS: initial virological and clinical findings. Thorax 2004;59:252-6.
41. Jie Z, He H, Xi H, Zhi Z. Expert consensus on chloroquine phosphate for the treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia. Chinese J Tubercul Res Med 2020;43:185-8.
42. Gautret P, Lagier J, Parola P, Hoang VT, Meddeb L, Mailhe M, et al. Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2020;56.
43. Lu H. Drug treatment options for the 2019-new coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Biosci Trends 2020;14:69-71.
44. Zhou N, Pan T, Zhang J, Li Q, Zhang X, Bai C, et al. Glycopeptide antibiotics potently inhibit cathepsin L in the late endosome/lysosome and block the entry of ebola virus, middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERSCoV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). J Biol Chem 2016;291:9218-32.
45. Singh AK, Singh A, Shaikh A, Singh R, Misra A. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of COVID-19 with or without diabetes: a systematic search and a narrative review with a special reference to India and other developing countries. Diabetes Metab Syndr 2020;14:241-6.
46. Duan K, Liu B, Li C, Zhang H, Yu T, Qu J, et al. Effectiveness of convalescent plasma therapy in severe COVID-19 patients. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2020;17:9490-6.
47. Kumar GV, Jeyanthi V, Ramakrishnan S. A short review on antibody therapy for COVID-19. New Microbes New Infect 2020;35. DOI:10.1016/j.nmni.2020.100682
48. Shanmugaraj B, Siriwattananon K, Wangkanont K, Phoolcharoen W. Perspectives on monoclonal antibody therapy as potential therapeutic intervention as potential therapeutic intervention. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol 2020;38:10-11.
49. Le TT, Andreadakis Z, Kumar A, Roman RG, Tollefsen S, Saville M, et al. The COVID-19 vaccine development landscape. Nat Rev Drug Discovery 2020;19:305-6.
50. Shen K, Yang Y, Wong T, Zhao D, Jiang Y, Jin R, et al. Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in children: experts’ consensus statement. World J Pediatr 2020;16:223-31.
51. Deng M. The prevention and management of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19) outbreak in radiology departments in epidemic areas. Japan J Radiol 2020;38:483-8.
52. Kandasamy K, Rajagopal SS, Ramalingam K, Krishnan K. Prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes in a rural community: a home-based screening. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:454-7.
53. Hutapea A, Hutahaean S, Ilyas S. Influence of pirdot leaf (Saurauia Vulcani, Korth.) extract on the blood glucose rate and histologic description of the retina of male mice (Mus musculus strain DDW). Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:389-92.
54. Kaveeshwar SA, Cornwall J. The current state of diabetes mellitus in India. Australas Med J 2014;7:45-8.
55. Notkins AL. The causes of diabetes. Sci Am 1979;1:62-3.
56. American Diabetes Association. Economic Costs of Diabetes in the U. S. in 2017. Diabetes Care 2018;41:917–28.
57. Bornstein SR, Rubino F, Khunti K, Mingrone G, Hopkins D, Birkenfeld AL, et al. Practical recommendations for the management of diabetes in patients with COVID-19. Lancet 2020;8:546-50.
58. Green JR, Buchan GC, Alvord EC, Swanson AG. Hereditary and idiopathic types of diabetes insipidus. Brain: A J Neurol 1967;90:707-14.
59. Xue T, Li Q, Zhang Q, Lin W, Wen J, Li L, et al. Blood glucose levels in elderly subjects with type 2 diabetes during COVID-19 outbreak: a retrospective study in a single center.medRxiv; 2020.
60. Zhu L, She Z, Cheng X, Qin J, Zhang X, Cai J, et al. Association of blood glucose control and outcomes in patients with COVID-19 and pre-existing type 2 diabetes. Cell Metab 2020;31:1068-77.
61. American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 2010;33:62-9.
62. Rao CR, Kamath VG, Shetty A, Kamath A. A cross-sectional analysis of obesity among a rural population in coastal southern Karnataka, India. Australas Med J 2011;4:53-7.
63. Kumar A, Goel MK, Jain RB, Khanna P, Chaudhary V. India towards diabetes control: key issues. Australas Med J 2013;6:524-31.
64. American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 2014;37:81-90.
65. Ceriello A, Standl E, Catrinoiu D, Itzhak B, Lalic NM, Rahelic D, et al. Issues for the management of people with diabetes and COVID-19 in ICU. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2020;19:114.
66. Meng B, Li J, Cao H. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of curcumin on diabetes mellitus and its complication, Curr Pharm Des 2013;19:2101-13.
67. Hespanhol V, Barbara C. Pneumonia mortality, comorbidities matter? Pulmonology 2019;26:123-9.
68. Zhou J, Tan J. Diabetes patients with COVID-19 need better blood glucose management in Wuhan, China, Metabolism; 2020.
69. Zou Z, Yan Y, Shu Y, Gao R, Sun Y, Li X, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 protects from lethal avian influenza A H5N1 infections. Nat Commun 2014;5:3594.
70. Pal R, Bhadada SK. COVID-19 and diabetes mellitus: an unholy interaction of two pandemics. Diabetes Metab Syndr 2020;14:513-7.
71. Kassir R. Risk of COVID-19 for patients with obesity. Obes Rev 2020;21:e13034.
72. Otsuka Y, Kiyohara C, Kashiwado Y, Sawabe T, Nagano S, Kimiti Y, et al. Effects of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors and tocilizumab on the glycosylated haemoglobin levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis; an observational study. PLOS One 2018;13:e0196368.
73. Mori M, Yamaguchi M, Michimata T, Akuzawa M, Iriuchijima T, Ohshima K, et al. Camostat mesilate decreases the blood glucose level in insulin-treated diabetic patients. J Japan Diabetes Soc 1987;30:1039-42.
74. Zheng L, Hunter K, Gaughan J, Poddar S. Preadmission use of calcium channel blockers and outcomes after hospitalization with pneumonia: a retrospective propensity-matched cohort study. Am J Ther 2017;24:30-8.
75. Singh AK, Gupta R, Ghosh A, Misra A. Diabetes in COVID-19: prevalence, pathophysiology, prognosis and practical considerations. Diabetes Metab Syndr 2020;14:303-10.
76. Rayman G, Lumb A, Kennon V, Cottrell C, Nagi D, Page E, et al. Guidelines for the management of diabetes services and patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Diabet Med 2020;37:1087–9.
77. Caballero AE, Ceriello A, Misra A, Aschner P, McDonnell ME, Hassanein M, et al. COVID-19 in people living with diabetes: an international consensus. J Diabetes Complications 2020;34:107671.
78. Hussain A, Bhowmik B, Moreira NCV. COVID-19 and diabetes: knowledge in progress. Diabetes Res Clin 2020;162:108142.
79. Jain R, Jain P, Jain P. A review on treatment and prevention of diabetes mellitus. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2016;8:16-8.
80. Sherene AM, Roshini C, Babu AN, Rajesh E, Anitha N. Diabetes and oral health. JCR 2020;7:3503-5.
186 Views | 308 Downloads
How to Cite
KUMARI, R., J. KAUR, and S. HUSSAIN. “MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES WITH COVID-19: A REVIEW”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 12, no. 12, Dec. 2020, pp. 1-6, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2020v12i12.39968.
Review Article(s)