• Subrata Kundu Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda Centenary College, Rahara, Kolkata
  • Anupam Das Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda Centenary College, Rahara, Kolkata
  • Biswajit Ghosh Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda Centenary College, Rahara, Kolkata


Objectives: The use of pepper fruit is renowned for its capsaicin content that has numerous beneficial effects in food and pharmaceutical industry. However pepper fruits exhibit wide variations in the accumulation of capsaicin depending on agro-climatic conditions. Therefore, we have performed experiments to evaluate the variation of major bioactive compounds including capsaicin of world second hottest chili pepper BhutJolokia fruit across two different agro-climatic conditions.

Methods: All the analysis was done according to standard protocols.

Results: Biochemical combined with High Performance Thin layer Chromatography (HPTLC) analyses confirmed significant differences in major bioactive compounds including capsaicin due to the variation in agro-climatic conditions as well as elevation. It was observed that total phenolic and flavonoid content of BhutJolokia fruit (BJ-N) cultivated in Nagaland were more than 2-fold higher compared to the fruits (BJ-W) cultivated in West Bengal. The amount of capsaicin was found to be 4.345–folds higher in BJ-N compared to BJ-W. The Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that the chemical composition of the BhutJolokia fruits growing in two different geographical location also exhibit chemodiversity.

Conclusion: An overabundance of the agro-climatic conditions likely to differ across the two different elevations. There may be a complex interaction among these different features that play a key role of this significant variation of fruit phenotype as well as major bioactive compounds. The decrease in elevation may be the key reason of the trade-offs of pungency and important secondary metabolites in pepper fruit cultivated in West Bengal.


Keywords: Bhut Jolokia, HPTLC, Antioxidant, Pungency, GC-MS


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Biswajit Ghosh, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda Centenary College, Rahara, Kolkata
Department of Botany


1. Howard LR, Talcott ST, Brenes CH, Villalon B. Changes in phytochemical and antioxidant activity of selected pepper cultivars (Capsicum species) as influenced by maturity. J Agric Food Chem 2000;48:1713-20.
2. Materska M, Perucka I. Antioxidant activity of the main phenolic compounds isolated from hot pepper fruit (Capsicum annuum L.). J Agric Food Chem 2005;53:1750-6.
3. Amruthraj NJ, Raj JPP, Saravanan S, Lebel LA. In vitro studies on anticancer activity of capsaicinoids from Capsicum chinenseagainst human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:254-8.
4. Shahidi F. Functional foods: their role in health promotion and disease prevention. J Food Sci 2004;69:R146-R9.
5. Kaur C, Kapoor HC. Antioxidants in fruits and vegetables. The millenniums health. Int J Food Sci Tech 2001;36:703-25.
6. Bosland PW, Coon D, Reeves G. ‘Trinidad moruga scorpion’ pepper is the world’s hottest measured chile pepper at more than two million scoville heat units. Hort Technol 2012;22:534-8.
7. Stewart C, Mazourek M, Stellari GM, O’Connell M, Jahn M. Genetic control of pungency in C. chinense via the Pun1 locus. J Exp Bot 2007;58:979-91.
8. Zewdie Y, Bosland PW. Pungency of Chile (Capsicum annuum L.) fruit is affected by node position. Hortsci 2000;35:1174.
9. Gurung T, Techawongstien S, Suriharn B, Techawongstien S. Stability analysis of yield and capsaicinoids content in chili (Capsicum spp.) grown across six environments. Euphytica 2012;187:11-8.
10. Musfiroh I, Mutakin M, Angelina T, Muchtaridi M. Capsaicin level of various capsicum fruits. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013;5:248-51.
11. Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela–Raventos RM. Analysis of total phenol and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin–Ciocalteu reagent. Methods Enzymol 1999;299:152-78.
12. Chang CC, Yang MH, Wen HM, Chern JC. Estimation of total flavonoid content in Propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. J Food Drug Anal 2002;10:178-82.
13. Jagota SK, Dani HM. A new colorimetric technique for the estimation of vitamin C using Folin phenol reagent. Anal Biochem 1982;127:178-82.
14. Radwan DEM, Fayez KF, Mahmoud SY, Hamad A, Lu G. Physiological and metabolic changes of Cucurbitapepo leaves in response to Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) infection and salicylic acid treatments. Plant Physiol Biochem 2007;45:480-9.
15. Miller GL. Use of dinitrosalicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar. Anal Chem 1959;31:426-8.
16. Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for quantification of proteins utilizing the principle of protein dye binding. Anal Biochem 1976;72:248-54.
17. Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset C. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT Food Sci Technol 1995;28:25-30.
18. Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cationdecolorization assay. Free Radical Biol Med 1999;26:1231-7.
19. Hinneburg I, Dorman HJD, Hiltunen R. Antioxidant activities of extracts from selected culinary herbs and spices. Food Chem 2006;97:122-9.
20. Sanatombi K, Sharma GJ. Capsaicin content and pungency of different Capsicum spp. cultivars. Not Bot Horti Agrobot Cluj 2008;36:89-90.
21. Miliauskas G, Venskutonis PR, Van Beek TA. Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts. Food Chem 2004;85:231-7.
22. Gulati V, Harding IH, Palombo EA. Enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of traditional medicinal plants: potential application in the management of hyperglycemia. BMC Complement Altern Med 2012;12:77.
23. Gurung T, Techawongstien S, Suriharn B, Techawongstien S. Impact of Environments on the accumulation of capsaicinoids in capsicum spp. Hort Sci 2011;46:1576-81.
24. Tewksbury JJ, Manchego C, Haak DC, LeveyDJ. Where did the chili get its spice? Biogeography of capsaicinoid production in ancestral wild chili species. J Chem Ecol 2006;32:547-64.
342 Views | 831 Downloads
How to Cite
Kundu, S., A. Das, and B. Ghosh. “MODULATIONOF PUNGENCY AND MAJOR BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN PEPPER DUE TO AGRO-CLIMATIC DISCREPANCY: A CASE STUDY WITH CAPSICUM CHINENSE BHUT JOLOKIA FRUIT”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 7, no. 2, Dec. 2014, pp. 294-8,
Original Article(s)