ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF FRUIT AND LEAVES EXTRACT OF LANNEA MICROCARPA ENGLAND K. KRAUS (ANACARDIACEAE)
Keywords:Lannea microcarpa, Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, Carotenoids, Fruit, Leaves
Objective:Â To investigate the anti-inflammatory activity as well as carotenoid content of crude hydro-acetonic extract of fruit and leaves of Lannea microcarpa (L. microcarpa) and to elucidate the possible anti-inflammatory mechanism by enzymatic and non-enzymatic methods.
Methods:Â Anti-inflammatory activity was determined by using carrageenan induced paw edema in mice;Â the anti-inflammatory mechanism may have been assessed using the inhibitory effect of the extracts, on the lipoxygenase, xanthine oxidase, lipid peroxidation and the reduction of Fe3+.
Results:Â At the doses of 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg, the extracts of both fruit and leaves reduced the carrageenan-induced paw edema while the dose of 200 mg/kg has produced a maximum percentage of inhibition of mice paw edema both for fruit (78.44%) and leaves (58.02%) at the fifth hour compared to control. Significant lipoxigenase and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect was obtained with both fruit and leaves extract ethyl acetate fraction. Ethyl acetate fraction from both extracts inhibited lipid peroxidation. The fruit and leaves extract ethyl acetate fraction also inhibited lipid peroxidation with 32.85% and 78.07% respectively. Crude acetonic extract of leaves of Lannea microcarpa has shown a significantly reducing power of Fe3+ by 9.46Â±0.26 and high carotenoids content compared to those of fruit extract.
Conclusion: The results obtained from the present study suggest that Lannea microcarpa fruit and leaves extract possess significant anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacities (mg AAE/100 mg). Therefore, they could be useful for food and pharmaceutics industries.
Srinath Reddy K, Katan MB. Diet nutrition and the prevention of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Public Health Nutr 2004;7:167-86.
Voko Z, Hollander M, Hofman A. Dietary antioxidants and the risk of ischemic stroke: the Rotterdam study. Neurol 2003;61:1273â€“5.
Simirgiotis MJ, Schmeda-Hirschmann G. Direct identification of phenolic constituents in Boldo Folium (Peumus boldus Mol.) infusions by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatography 2010;A1217:443â€“9.
Roberts RA, Smith RA, Safe S, Szabo C, Tjalkens RB, Robertson FM. Toxicological and Pathophysiological roles of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.â€ Toxicol 2010;276:85â€“94.
Martinon F. Signaling by ROS drives inflammasome activation. Eur J Immunol 2010;40:616â€“9.
Pagella PG, Bellavite O, Agozzino S. Pharmacological studies of imidazole-2-hydroxybenzoate ITF 182, an anti-inflammatory compound with an action on thromboxane A2 production. J Arzneimittelforsch 1983;33(5):716-26.
Arbonnier M. Trees, shrubs and lianas of West African dry zones. CIRA, Margraf Publishers Gmbh, MNHN, Paris, France; 2004. p. 573.
Inngjerdingen K, Nergard CS, Diallo D, Mounkoro PP, Paulsen BS. An ethnopharmacology survey of plants used for wound healing in Dogonland, Mali West Afica. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;92:233-44.
Tapsoba H, Deschamps JP. Use of medicinal plants for the treatment of oraldiseases in Burkina Faso. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;104:68-78.
Nadembega P, Boussim JI, Nikiema JB, Poli F, Antognoni 387 F. Medicinal plants in Baskoure, Kourittenga Province, Burkina Faso: an ethnobotanical study. J Ethnopharmacol 2011;133:378-95.
Malgras D. Arbres et arbustes guerisseurs des savanes maliennes, ed. AACT Karthala, Paris; 1992. p. 478.
Bationo JH, Hilou A, Savadogo P, Nacoulma OG. Content of polyphenolics constituents and the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extract from extract of leaves and fruits of Lannea microcarpa Engl & K Krause (Anacardiaceae). Curr Res J Biol Sci 2012;4:290-6.
Picerno P, Mencherini T, Della-Loggia R, Meloni M, Sanogo R, Aquino. An extract of Lannea microcarpa: composition, activity and evaluation of cutaneous irritation in cell cultures and reconstituted human epidermis. J Pharm Pharmacol 2006;58(7):981-8.
Zimmerman M. Ethical guidelines for investigations of experimental pain in conscious animals. Pain 1983;16:109-10.
Ecobichon DJ. The basis of toxicology testing. RC press: New York; 1997. p. 43-86.
Winter CA, Risley EA, Nuss GW. Carrageenin-induced edema in hind paw ofthe rat as an assay for anti-inflammatory drug. J Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1962;111:544-7.
Maiga A, Malterud KE, Diallo D, Paulsen BS. Antioxidant and 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory activities of the Malian medicinal plants Diospyrosabyssinica (Hiern) F. White (Ebenaceae), Lannea velutina A. Rich (Anacardiaceae) and Crossopteryxfebrifuga (Afzel) Benth. (Rubiaceae). J Ethnopharmacol 2006;104:132â€“7.
Owen PL, Timothy J. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of 410 northeastern North American plant remedies used for gout. J Ethnopharmacol 1999;64:149-60.
Hinneburg I, Dorman HJD, Hiltunen R. Antioxidant activities of extracts from selected culinary herbs and spices. Food Chem 2006;97:122â€“9.
Diplock AT, Rice-Evans CA, Burdon RH. Is there a significant role for lipid peroxidation in the causation of malignancy and for antioxidants in cancer prevention? Cancer Res 1994;54:1952â€“6.
Barros L, Ferreira MJ, Queiro`s B, Ferreira IC, Baptista P. Total phenols, ascorbic acid, b-carotene and lycopene in Portuguese wild edible mushrooms and their antioxidant activities. Food Chem 200;103:413â€“4.
Ruangsang P, Tewtrakul S, Reanmongkol W. Evaluation of the analgesic and Antiinflammatory activities of Curcuma mangga val and zijp rhizomes. J Nat Med 2010;64(1):36â€“41.
Cuzzocrea S, Zingarelli B, Hake P, Salzman AL, Szabo C. Anti-inflammatory effects of mercaptoethylguanidine, a combined inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase and peroxynitrite scavenger in carrageenan-induced models of inflammation. Free Radicals Biol Med 1998;24:450â€“9.
Ueno A, Naraba H, Ikeda Y, Ushikubi F, Murata T, Naramiya S, et al. Intrinsic prostacyclin contributes to exudation induced by bradykinin or carrageenan: a study on the paw oedema induced in IP-receptor-deficient mice. Life Sci 2000;66:155â€“60.
Seibert K, Zhang Y, Leahy K, Hauser S, Masferrer J, Perkins W, et al. Pharmacological and biochemical demonstration of the role of cyclooxy-genase 2 ininflammation and pain. Proc Natl Acad Sci United States Am 1994;12013â€“120.
Arawwawala M, Thabrew I, Arambewela L, Handunnetti S. Anti-inflammatory activity of Trichosanthes cucumerina Linn in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2010;131:538-43.
Makino H, Ashida Y, Saijo T, Kuriki H, Terao S, Maki Y. Role of leukotrienes in rat reversed arthus pleurisy and the effect of AA861, a 5-1ipoxygenase inhibitor. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1986;79:38-44.
Pale E, Nacro M, Kouda-Bonafas M. Anthocyanins from fruits of Lannea microcarpa. Trop Sci 1998;38:20â€“4.
Ponce AM, Blanco SE, Molina AS, Garcia-Domenech R, Galvez J. Study of the action of flavonoids on xanthine-oxidase by molecular topology. J Chem Inf Comput Sci 2000;40:1039â€“45.
Umamaheswari M, Asokkumar K, Sivashunmugam AT, Remyaraju A, Subhadradevi V, Ravi TK. In vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of thefractions of Erythrina strcta Roxb. J Ethnopharmacol 2009;124:646-8.
Zhang R, Brennan ML, Shen Z, Macpherson JC, Schmitt D, Molenda CE, et al. Myeloperoxidase functions as a major enzymatic catalyst for initiation of lipidperoxidation at sites of inflammation. J Biol Chem 2002;277:46116â€“22.
Hernandez-Ortega M, Ortiz-Moreno A, Hernandez-Navarro 459 MD, Chamorro-Cevallos G, Dorantes-Alvarez L, Necoechea-Mondragon H. Antioxidant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of carotenoids extracted from dried pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). J Biomed Biotechnol 2012. doi: 10.1155/2012/524019.[Articles in Press].
Ben-Amotz, Fishler R. Analysis of carotenoids with emphasis on 9-cis Î²-carotenein vegetables and fruits commonly consumed in Israelâ€. Food Chem, 1998;62:515â€“20.
Zheng MS, Yang JH, Li Y, Li X, Chang HW, Son JK. Antiinflammatory activity of constituents isolated from Ulmusdavidianavar japonica. Bio mol Ther 2010;18:321â€“8.
Banerjee S. Inhibition of mackerel muscle lipoxygenase by green tea polyphenolsâ€. Food Res Int 2006;39:486-91.
Arslan R, Bektas N, Ozturk Y. Antinociceptive activity of methanol extracts of fruits of Capparisovata in mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2010;131:28â€“32.
Krinsky N, Johnson E. Carotenoid actions and their relation to health and disease. Mol Aspects Med 2005;26:459-516.
Burkill HM, Royal E. The useful plants of west tropical Africa. Vol 2nd. Gardens Kew; 1994. p. 1-17.