• Deepa K. Ingawale Institute of Pharmacy, Nirma University, Sarkhej-Gandhinagar Highway, Ahmedabad-382481, (Gujarat, India)
  • Praboth V. Shah Virgo UAP Pharma Pvt. Ltd., Nirma University, Sarkhej-Gandhinagar Highway, Ahmedabad-382481, (Gujarat, India)
  • Snehal S. Patel Institute of Pharmacy, Nirma University, Sarkhej-Gandhinagar Highway, Ahmedabad-382481, (Gujarat, India)


Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of Virgoliv syrup on CCl4 induced hepatic injury in rats.

Methods: The hepatic injury was induced by intra peritoneal injection of 0.3 % CCl4 (10 ml/kg) diluted with olive oil (1:1). The biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TB) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and antioxidant enzymes such as malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were estimated to assess the liver function. The histopathological changes of liver tissues were studied and compared with silymarin.

Results: The levels of biochemical parameters such as ALT, AST, ALP and TB were significantly increased in CCl4 treated rats when compared with the normal rats but the Virgoliv syrup treated rats showed maximum reduction of ALT, AST, ALP and TB levels in significant manner. The CCl4 treated rats showed significantly increase in MDA and decrease in GSH, CAT and SOD levels of liver tissue when compared to control rats. Treatments of rats with Virgoliv syrup and silymarin showed significant improvment in antioxidant enzyme levels in liver tissue. The hepatoprotective effect of Virgoliv syrup was confirmed by histopathological examination of liver tissues.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that Virgoliv syrup showed significant hepatoprotective activity against CCl4 induced hepatic damage and this might be due to scavenging of free radicals as evident by recovery of antioxidant enzymes such as CAT, GSH and SOD towards normalization and decreased lipid peroxidation.


Keywords: Virgoliv syrup, Carbon-tetrachloride, Hepatoprotection, Silymarin, Histopathology


Download data is not yet available.


1. Yang JY, Li Y, Wang F, Wu C. Hepatoprotective effects of apple polyphenols on CCl4-induced acute liver damage in mice. J Agric Food Chem 2010;58:6525-31.
2. Kumar SS, Kumar BR, Mohan GK. Hepatoprotective effect of Trichosanthes cucumerina Var cucumerina L. on carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage in rats. J Ethanopharmacol 2009;123:347-50.
3. Lan Y, Wang C, Ye J, Li H. Hepatoprotective effects of polyprenols from Ginkgo biloba L. Leaves on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Fitoterapia 2011;82:834-40.
4. Karan M, Vasisht K, Handa SS. Antihepatotoxic activity of Swertia chirata on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Phytother Res 1999;13:24-30.
5. Takate S, Pokharkar R, Chopad V. Hepatoprotective activity of the aqueous extract of Launaea intybacea Beauv against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic injury in Albino rats. J Pharm Sci Tech 2010;2(7):247-51.
6. Brautbar N, Williams IIJ. Industrial solvents and liver toxicity: risk assessment, risk factors and mechanisms. Int J Hyg Environ Health 2002;205:479-91.
7. Brattin WJ, Glende Jr EA, Recknagel RO. Pathological mechanisms in carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity. J Free Radical Biol Med 1985;1:27-38.
8. Recknagel RO, Glende Jr EA, Dolak JA, Waller RL. Mechanisms of carbon tetrachloride toxicity. Pharmacol Ther 1989;43:139-54.
9. Shen X, Tang Y, Yang R, Yu L, Fang T, Duan J. The protective effect of Zizyphus jujube fruit on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic injury in mice by antioxidative activities. J Ethnopharmacol 2009;122:555-60.
10. Janbaz KH, Saeed SA, Gilani AH. Protective effect of rutin on paracetamol and CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rodents. Fitoterapia 2002;73:557-63.
11. Kuriakose GC, Kurup GM. Antioxidant activity of Aulosira fertilisima on CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Indian J Exp Biol 2008;46:52-9.
12. Shetty RS, Quereshi AA, Viswanath SAH, Patil T, Prakash T, Prabhu K, et al. Hepatoprotective activity of Calotropis procera flowers against paracetamol induced hepatic injury in rats. Fitoterapia 2007;78:451-4.
13. Chouhan KN, Patel MB, Valera HR, Patil SD, Suraana SJ. Hepatoprotective activity of flowers of Cassia auriculata R. Br. against paracetamol induced liver injury. J Nat Rem 2009;9(1):85-90.
14. McCay PB, Lai EK, Poyer JL, DuBose CM, Janzen EG. Oxygen-and carbon-centered free radical formation during carbon tetrachloride metabolism. Observation of lipid radicals in vivo and in vitro. J Biol Chem 1984;259:2135-43.
15. Edwards MJ, Keller BJ, Kauffman FC, Thurman RG. The involvement of Kupffer cells in carbon tetrachloride toxicity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1993;119:275-9.
16. Elsisi AE, Earnest DL, Sipes IG. Vitamin A potentiation of car-bon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity: role of liver macrophages and active oxygen species. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1993;119:295-301.
17. Jiang W, Gao M, Sun S, Bi A, Xin Y, Han X, et al. Protective effect of l-theanine on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2012;422:344-50.
18. Subramoniam A, Evans DA, Rajasakhran SP. Hepatoprotective activity of Trichopuszeyl anicus extracts against paracetamol induced damage in rats. Indian J Exp Biol 1998;36:385-9.
19. Gurpreet K, Zoobi J, Mohammed A, Sarwar MA. Punica granatum (pomegranate) flower extract possesses potent antioxidant activity and abrogates Fe-NTA induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Food Chem Toxicol 2006;44:984-93.
20. Zeashan H, Amresha G, Singh S, Rao CV. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Amaranthus spinosus against CCl4 induced toxicity. J Ethnopharmacol 2009;125:364-6.
21. Yang JY, Li Y, Wang F, Wu C. Hepatoprotective effects of apple polyphenols on CCl4-induced acute liver damage in mice. J Agric Food Chem 2010;58:6525-31.
22. Lin X, Liu X, Huang Q, Zhang S, Zheng L, Wei L, et al. Hepatoprotective effects of the polysaccharide isolated from Tarphochlamys affinis (Acanthaceae) against CCl4-induced hepatic injury. Biol Pharm Bull 2012;35:1574-80.
23. OECD Guideline for The Testing of Chemicals: Guidance document on acute oral toxicity, Environmental health and safety monograph series on testing and assessment; 2000.
24. Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K. Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Ann Biochem 1979;95:351-8.
25. Beutler E, Duron O, Kelly B. Improved method for the determination of blood glutathione. J Lab Clin Med 1963;61:882-90.
26. Chance B, Mackley A. Assays of catalases and peroxides. Methods Enzymol 1955;2:764-75.
27. Dechaatelet LR, McCall CE, McPhail LC, Johnston Jr RB. Superoxide dismutase activity in leukocytes. J Clin Invest 1974;53:1197-201.
28. Kodai S, Takemura S, Minamiyama Y, Hai S, Yamamoto S, Kubo S, et al. Sallyl cysteine prevents CCl4-induced acute liver injury in rats. Free Radic Res 2007;41:489-97.
29. Tien YC, Liao JC, Chiu CS, Huang TH, Yang CH, Chang WT, et al. Esculetin ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-mediated hepatic apoptosis in rats. Int J Mol Sci 2011;12:4053-67.
30. Kim HY, Park J, Lee KH, Lee DU, Kwak JH, Kim YS, et al. Ferulic acid protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in mice. Toxicol 2011;6:104-11.
31. Weber LW, Boll M, Stampfl A. Hepatotoxicity and mechanism of action of haloalkanes: carbon tetrachloride as a toxicological model. Crit Rev Toxicol 2003;33:105-36.
32. Ishwer K, Mohd AK, Yusufuddin I, Veerana GA. Hepatoprotective potential of ethanolic and aqueous extract of flowers of Sesbania grandiflora (Linn) induced by CCl4. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012:2(2):S670-S9.
33. Dang SS, Wang BF, Cheng YA, Song P, Liu ZG, Li ZF. Inhibitory effects of saikosaponin-d on CCl4 induced hepatic fibrogenesis in rats. World J Gastroenterol 2007;13:557-63.
34. Lin HM, Tseng HC, Wang CJ, Lin JJ, Lo CW, Chou FP. Hepato-protective effects of Solanum nigrum Linn extract against CCl4 induced oxidative damage in rats. Chem Biol Interact 2008;171:283-93.
35. Kamm JJ, Dashman T, Conney AH, Burns JJ. Protective effect of ascorbic acid on hepatotoxicity caused by sodium nitrite plus aminopyrine. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1973;70:747-9.
36. Naziroğlu M, Cay M, Ustündağ B, Aksakal M, Yekeler H. Protective effects of vitamin E on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. Cell Biochem Funct 1999;17:253-9.
37. Ozturk IC, Ozturk F, Gul M, Ates B, Cetin A. Protective effects of ascorbic acid on hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress caused by carbon tetrachloride in the liver of Wistar rats. Cell Biochem Funct 2009;27:309-15.
38. Vitaglione P, Morisco F, Caporaso N, Fogliano V. Dietary antioxidant compounds and liver health. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2004;44:575-86.
39. Wang BJ, Liu CT, Tseng CY, Wu CP, Yu ZR. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Bupleurum kaoi Liu (Chao et Chuang) extract and its fractions fractionated using supercritical CO2 on CCl4-induced liver damage. Food Chem Toxicol 2004;42:609-17.
40. Timmerman KP. Molecular characterization of corn glutathione-Stransferase isozymes involved in herbicide detoxification. Physiol Plant 1989;77:465-71.
41. Reiter RJ, Tan D, Osuna C, Gitto E. Actions of melatonin in the reduction of oxidative stress. J Biomed Sci 2000;7:444-58.
42. Blake DR, Allen RE, Lunee J. Free radicals in biological systems: a review oriented to the inflammatory process. Br Med Bull 1987;43:371-85.
43. Jayakumar T, Ramesh E, Geraldine P. Antioxidant activity of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus on CCl4 induced liver injury in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 2006;44:1989-96.
44. Cantin AM, White TB, Cross CE, Forman HJ, Sokol RJ, Borowitz D. Antioxidants in cystic fibrosis conclusions from the CF Antioxidant Workshop, Bethesda, MD, November 11–12, 2003. Free Radical Biol Med 2007;42:15-31.
45. Boll M, Weber LW, Becker E, Stampfl A. Mechanism of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity. Hepatocellular damage by reactive carbon tetrachloride metabolites. Z Naturforsch C 2001;56:649-59.
46. Burton GW, Ingold KU. Vitamin E as an in vitro and in vivo antioxidant. Ann NY Acad Sci 1989;570:7-22.
47. Karp SJ. Clinical implications of advances in the basic science of liver repair and regeneration. Am J Transplan 2009;9:1973-80.
429 Views | 2910 Downloads
How to Cite
Ingawale, D. K., P. V. Shah, and S. S. Patel. “HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF VIRGOLIV SYRUP AGAINST CCL4 INDUCED HEPATIC INJURY IN RATS”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 8, no. 8, June 2015, pp. 221-6, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ijpps/article/view/5583.
Original Article(s)