ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF PLANT BIOSURFACTANT EXTRACT FROM SAPINDUS MUKOROSSI AND IN SILICO EVALUATION OF ITS BIOACTIVITY
Objective: Natural biosurfactants can replace synthetic surfactants and find applications in cosmetic products. Saponin extracts from Sapindus mukorossi fruits have emulsifying properties and have traditionally been used in hair care treatments. Their utility can be enhanced by studying their antimicrobial activity against common skin and other microorganisms.
Methods: Aqueous biosurfactant extracts were prepared from fruits of S. mukorossi. Concentrated and diluted extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against Micrococcus luteus, Brevibacterium linens, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens by the well diffusion method and measuring the zone of inhibition. In silico biological activity of different saponins present in S. mukorossi was studied using the software Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substances (PASS).
Results: Concentrated extracts were most active against all the target microorganisms. Gram positive organisms were inhibited more than Gram negative ones. Diluted extracts produced comparable inhibition zones, suggesting that the extent of dilution does not affect the antimicrobial activity further. In silico evaluation showed that major saponin types (Sapindoside B, Sapinmusaponin A, Sapinmusaponin F and Sapinmusaponin N) had antibacterial activity with probable activity to probable inactivity (Pa>Pi) values less than the threshold level of 0.7.
Conclusion: Biosurfactant (saponin) extracts from S. mukorossi, can be included in herbal care products not only for their emulsifying properties, but also for their antimicrobial effect. While in silico study showed less than threshold level of antibacterial activity, the combination of all these saponin types together probably contributed to the synergistic antibacterial activity.
2. Francis G, Kerem Z, Makkar HP, Becker K. The biological action of saponins in animal systems: a review. Br J Nutr 2002;88:587â€“605.
3. Guclu-Ustundag O, Mazza G. Saponins: properties, applications and processing. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2007;47:231â€“58.
4. Kokare CR, Kadam SS, Mahadik KR, Chopade BA. Studies on bioemulsifier production from marine Streptomyces sp. S1. Indian J Biotechnol 2007;6:78-84.
5. Panjiar N, Gabrani R, Sarethy IP. Diversity of biosurfactant-producing Streptomyces isolates from hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. Int J Pharm Biosci 2013;4:524-35.
6. Mitra S, Dungun SR. Micellar properties of Quillaja saponin. Effects of temperature, salt and pH on solution properties. J Agric Food Chem 1997;45:1587-95.
7. Yadav JP, Panghal M. Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. (Hingot): A review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties. Int J Green Pharm 2010;4:140-6.
8. Shaker KH, Bernhardt M, Elgamal MHA, Seifert K. Triterpenoid saponins from Fagonia indica. Phytochem 1999;51:1049-53.
9. Kommalapati RR, Valsaraj KT, Constant WD, Roy D. Soil flushing using colloidal gas aphron suspensions generated from a plant-based surfactant. J Hazard Mater 1998;60:73-87.
10. Ghagi R, Satpute SK, Chopade BA, Banpurkar AG. Study of functional properties of Sapindus mukorossi as a potential bio-surfactant. Indian J Sci Technol 2011;4:530-3.
11. Lagunin A, Stepanchikova A, Filimonov D, Poroikov V. PASS: prediction of activity spectra for biologically active substances. Bioinformatics 2000;16:747-8.
12. Upadhyay A, Singh DK. Pharmacological effects of Sapindus mukurossi. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2012;54:273-80.
13. Ibrahim M, Khan AA, Tiwari SK, Habeeb MA, Khaja MN, Habibullah CM. Antimicrobial activity of Sapindus mukorossi and Rheum emodi extracts against H pylori: In vitro and in vivo studies. World J Gastroenterol 2006;12:7136-42.
14. Aneja KR, Joshi R, Sharma C. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Sapindus mukorossi and Emblica officinalis against dental caries pathogens. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 2010;14:402-12.
15. Parekh J, Chanda S. In vitro screening of antibacterial activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of various Indian plant species against selected pathogens from Enterobacteriaceae. Afr J Microbiol Res 2007;1:092-9.
16. Doughari JH, Pukuma MS, De N. Antibacterial effects of Balanites aegyptiaca L. Drel. and Moringa oleifera Lam. on Salmonella typhi. Afr J Biotechnol 2007;6:2212-5.
17. Tiwari P, Singh D, Singh M. Anti-Trichomonas activity of Sapindus saponins, a candidate for development as microbicidal contraceptive. J Antimicrob Chemother 2008;62:526-34.
18. Sengupta A, Basu SP, Saha S. Triglyceride composition of Sapindus mukorossi seed oil. Lipids 1975;10:33-40.