ELICITATION OF FORSKOLIN IN CULTURES OF RHIZACTONIA BATATICOLA-A PHYTOCHEMICAL SYNTHESIZING ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI
Objective: Coleus forskohlii is the only known source of forskolin-a labdanediterpene and a highly valuable phytochemical. Coleus forskohlii has been listed as endangered plant; therefore, efforts have been made to find novel sources of forskolin production.
Methods: Endophytic fungi were isolated from Coleus forskohlii tissue and screened for forskolin production by using thin layer chromatography (TLC) method. Further, 16 different elicitation media combinations were used to enhance the forskolin content.
Results: In this study, out of 38 strains of endophytic fungi from Coleus forskohlii only 2 strains EF1 and EF2 were found to synthesize forskolin in mycelium, whereas EF2 was found to release the forskolin into the broth. Further, EF2 was identified as Rhizactonia bataticola accession no. NFCCI 2028. Further, T2S1 media showed dramatic effects on enhanced forskolin production in mycelium. However, there was a significant increase about four folds in broth which corresponded to 0.5 mg compared to T1S1 media where it was 0.09 mg.
Conclusion: The present study suggests that the forskolin producing Rhizactonia bataticola and T2S1 media can serve as potential materials for large scale enhancement of forskolin production.
2. Paulus EF. Molecular and crystal structure of forskolin. Zeitschrift fÃ¼r Krist Mater 1980;152:239â€“46.
3. Ammon HP, Muller AB. Forskolin: from an ayurvedic remedy to a modern agent. Planta Med 1985;46:473â€“7.
4. De Souza NJ. In: Proceedings of the third asian symposium on medicinal plants and species; 1977. p. 83â€“92.
5. Metzger H, Lindner E. The positive inotropic-acting forskolin, A potent adenylate cyclase activator. ARzneimittelforschung 1981;31:1248-50.
6. Seamon KB, Padgett W, John WD. Forskolin: Unique Diterpene activator of adenylate cyclase in membranes and in intact cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1981;78:3363â€“67.
7. Rupp RH, De Souza NJ, Dohdwalla AN. Proceedings of The International Symposium on forskolin, Bombay (eds.); 1986.
8. Marone G, Columbo M, Triggiani M, Vigorita S, Formisano S. Forskolin inhibits the release of histamine from human basophils and mast cells. Agents Actions 1986;18:96â€“9.
9. Okuda H, Morimoto C, Tsujita T. Relationship between cyclic AMP production and lipolysis induced by forskolin in rat fat cells. J Lipid Res 1992;33:225â€“31.
10. Yajima H, Komatsu M, Schermerhorn T, Aizawa T, Kaneko T, Nagai M, et al. cAMP enhances insulin secretion by an action on the ATP-sensitive K+channel independent pathway of glucose signaling in rat pancreatic islets. Diabetes 1999;48:1006â€“12.
11. Alasbahi RH, Melzig MF. Plectranthus barbatus: a review of phytochemistry, ethnobotanical uses and pharmacologyâ€“part 2. Planta Med 2010;76:753â€“65.
12. Kavitha C, Rajamani K, Vadivel E. Coleus forskohlii: a comprehensive review on morphology, phytochemistry and pharmacological aspects. J Med Plant 2010;4:278â€“85.
13. Paul M, Radha A, Kumar SD. On the high value medicinal plant, Coleus forskohlii Briq. Hygeia 2013;5:69â€“78.
14. Bubolz AH, Li H, Wu Q, Liu Y. Enhanced oxidative stress impairs cAMP-mediated dilation by reducing Kv channel function in small coronary arteries of diabetic rats. Am J Physiol Hear Circ Physiol 2005;289:1873â€“80.
15. De Souza NJ, Shah V. Forskolinâ€“an adenylate cyclase activating drug from an Indian herb. Econ Med Plant Res 1988;2:1â€“16.
16. McEwan DG, Brunton VG, Baillie GS, Leslie NR, Houslay MD, Frame MC. Chemoresistant KM12C colon cancer cells are addicted to low cyclic AMP levels in a phosphodiesterase 4-regulated compartment via effects on phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Cancer Res 2007;67:5248â€“57.
17. Alasbahi RH, Melzig MF. Forskolin and derivatives as tools for studying the role of cAMP. Pharmazie 2012;67:5â€“13.
18. Sharma N, Chandel KPS, Srivastava VK. In vitro propagation of Coleus forskohlii Briq., a threatened medicinal plant. Plant Cell Rep 1991;10:67â€“70.
19. Vishwakarma RA, Tyagi BR, Ahmed B, Hussain A. Variation in forskolin content in the roots of Coleus forskohlii. Planta Med 1988;54:471â€“72.
20. Reddy CS, Praveena C, Veeresham C. Strategies to improve the production of forskolin from hairy root cultures of Coleus forskohlii Briq. Int J Pharm Sci Nanotechnol 2012;5:1720â€“6.
21. Swaroopa G, Anuradha M, Pullaiah T. Elicitation of Forskolin in Suspension Cultures of Coleus forskohlii (Willd.) Briq. Using Elicitors of Fungal Origin. Curr Trends Biotechnol Pharm 2013;7:755â€“62.
22. Sasaki K, Udagawa A, Ishimaru H, Hayashi T, Alfermann AW, Nakanishi F, et al. High forskolin production in hairy roots of Coleus forskohlii. Plant Cell Rep 1998;17:457â€“9.
23. Pandey R, Krishnasamy V, Kumaravadivel N, Rajamani K. Establishment of hairy root culture and production of secondary metabolites in Coleus (Coleus forskohlii). J Med Plants Res 2014;8:58â€“62.
24. Balasubramanya S, Rajanna L, Anuradha M. Effect of plant growth regulators on morphogenesis and forskolin production in Plectranthus barbatus Andrews. In Vitro Cellular Dev Biol Plant 2012;48:208â€“15.
25. Zhao J, Zhou L, Wang J, Shan T, Zhong L, Liu X, et al. Endophytic fungi for producing bioactive compounds originally from their host plants. Curr Res Technol Educ Top Appl Microbiol Microb Biotechnol 2010;1:567â€“76.
26. Rehman S, Shawl AS, Kour A, Andrabi R, Sudan P, Sultan P, et al. An endophytic Neurospora sp. from Nothapodytes foetida producing camptothecin. Appl Biochem Microbiol 2008;44:203â€“9.
27. Ahmad S, Rizwan M, Parveen R, Mujeeb M, Aquil M. A validated stability-indicating TLC method for determination of forskolin in crude drug and pharmaceutical dosage form. Chromatographia 2008;67:441â€“7.
28. Pu X, Qu X, Chen F, Bao J, Zhang G, Luo Y. Camptothecin-producing endophytic fungus Trichoderma atroviride LY357: Isolation, identification, and fermentation conditions optimization for camptothecin production. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2013;97:9365â€“75.
29. Stierle A, Strobel GA, Stierle D. Taxol and taxane production by Taxomyces andreanae, an endophytic fungus of pacific yew. Science 1993;260:214â€“6.
30. Gangadevi V, Murugan M, Muthumary J. Taxol determination from Pestalotiopsis pauciseta, a fungal endophyte of a medicinal plant. Shengwu Gongcheng Xuebao 2008;24:1433â€“8.
31. Garyali S, Kumar A, Reddy MS. Taxol production by an endophytic fungus, Fusarium redolens, isolated from Himalayan yew. J Microbiol Biotechnol 2013;23:1372â€“80.
32. Puri SC, Verma V, Amna T, Qazi GN, Spiteller M. An endophytic fungus from Nothapodytes foetida that produces camptothecin. J Nat Prod 2005;68:1717â€“9.
33. Kusari S, ZÃ¼hlke S, Spiteller M. An endophytic fungus from Camptotheca acuminata that produces camptothecin and analogues. J Nat Prod 2009;72:2â€“7.
34. Yang X, Guo S, Zhang L, Shao H. Selection of producing podophyllotoxin endophytic fungi from podophyllin plant. Nat Prod Res Dev 2003;15:419â€“22.
35. Puri SC, Nazir A, Chawla R, Arora R, Riyaz-ul-Hasan S, Amna T, et al. The endophytic fungus Trametes hirsuta as a novel alternative source of podophyllotoxin and related aryl tetralin ligans. J Biotechnol 2006;122:494â€“510.
36. Guo B, Li H, Zhang L. Isolation of the fungus producing vinblastine. J Yunnan Univ Nat Sci Ed 1998;20:214â€“5.
37. Zhang L, Guo B, Li H, Zeng S, Shao H, Gu S, et al. Preliminary study on the isolation of endophytic fungus of Catharanthus roseus and its fermentation to produce products of therapeutic value. Chung Ts'ao Yao 2000;31:805â€“7.
38. Selima K, UgË˜ur C, Narayan CC. Phytochemical constituents vis-a-vis histochemical localization of forskolin in a medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii Briq. J Med Plants Res 2011;5:711â€“8.