NOVEL SMART pH SENSITIVE CHITOSAN GRAFTED ALGINATE HYDROGEL MICROCAPSULES FOR ORAL PROTEIN DELIVERY: I. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION

  • Mohy Eldin Ms. University of Jeddah
  • Omer Am. Polymer Materials Research Department, Advanced Technology and New Materials Research Institute, City for Scientific Research and Technological Applications, Alexandria, Egypt
  • Wassel Ma. AL-Azhar University
  • Tamer Tm. Advanced Technology and New Materials Research Institute
  • Abd Elmonem Ms. National Organizations for Drug Control and Research
  • Ibrahim Sa. National Organizations for Drug Control and Research

Abstract

Objectives: Preparation and characterization of a new pH sensitive chitosan (CS) grafted alginate (ALG) hydrogel microcapsules for the oral delivery of protein.

Methods: The pH sensitive hydrogel microcapsules were prepared for the first time using “grafting to†technique. Firstly, alginate was activated using Ï-Benzoquinone (PBQ) as a coupling agent to graft Chitosan chains later on. Both of activated and grafted alginate microcapsules were characterized by Fourier transform-Infra red spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and the morphological structures were investigated using Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination.

Results: It was found that the optimum conditions affecting the activation process and also the swelling degree of the prepared hydrogel microcapsules were 2% ALG, 0.04M PBQ pH10, 45 °C for 2h. In addition, the grafting process depends on the attached amount of PBQ and CS concentration. Maximum grafting efficiency (GE %) and chitosan add-on percentage were 98.6% and 14.8% respectively using 0.3% CS at 40 °C for 3h.

Conclusions: Novel pH sensitive hydrogel microcapsules were prepared via grafting of chitosan molecules on to activated alginate backbone. The formulated microcapsules can be applied as a new pH sensitive carrier for protein drugs.

 

Keywords: Alginate, Chitosan, Polyelectrolyte complex, Hydrogel, Grafting, Activation

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

1. Sun J, Tan H. Alginate-based biomaterials for regenerative medicine applications. Materials 2013;6:1285-309.
2. Lee KY, Mooney DJ. Hydrogels for tissue engineering. Chem Rev 2001;101:1869–79.
3. Tan H, Marra KG. Injectable biodegradable hydrogels for tissue engineering applications. Materials 2010;3:1746–67.
4. Kumara A, Srivastava A, Galaev IY, Mattiasson B. Smart polymers: physical forms and bioengineering applications. Prog Polym Sci 2007;32:1205–37.
5. Qiu Y, Park K. Environment-sensitive hydrogels for drug delivery. Adv Drug Delivery Rev 2001;53:321–39.
6. Gazori T, Khoshayand MR, Azizi E, Yazdizade P, Nomani A, Haririan I. Evaluation of Alginate/chitosan nanoparticles as antisense delivery vector. Formulation, optimization and in vitro characterization. Carbohydrate Polym 2009;77:599–606.
7. Masteiková R, Chalupová Z, Šklubalová Z. Stimuli-sensitive hydrogels in controlled and sustained drug delivery. Medicina 2003;39:19-24.
8. Mi F, Tan Y, Liang H, Sung H. In vivo biocompatibility and degradability of a novel injectable-chitosan-based implant. Biomaterials 2002;23:181–91.
9. Peppas NA, Bures P, Leobandung W, Ichikawa H. Hydrogels in pharmaceutical formulations. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2000;50:27–46.
10. Siegel RA, Falamarzian M, Firestone BA, Moxley BC. pH-controlled release from hydrophobic/polyelectrolyte copolymer hydrogels. J Controlled Release 1988;8:179–82.
11. Abreu F, Bianchini C, Forte MMC, Kist TBL. Influence of the composition and preparation method on the morphology and swelling behavior of alginate-chitosan hydrogels. Carbohydrate Polym 2008;74:283–9.
12. Pasparakis G, Bouropoulos N. Swelling studies and in vitro release of verapamil from calcium alginate and calcium alginate–chitosan beads. Int J Pharm 2006;323:34–42.
13. Ress DA, Welsh EJ. Secondary and tertiary structure of polysaccharides in solutions and gels. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 1997;16:214–24.
14. Kim JO, Park JK, Kim JH, Jin SG, Yonga CS, Li DX, et al. Development of polyvinyl alcohol–sodium alginate gelmatrix-based wound dressing system containing nitrofurazone. Int J Pharm 2008;359:79–86.
15. Li S, Wang X, Zhang X, Yang R, Zhang H, Zhub L, et al. Studies on alginate–chitosan microcapsules and renal arterial embolization in rabbits. J Controlled Release 2002;84:87–98.
16. Gomez G, Ayala D, Malinconico M, Laurienzo P. Marine derived polysaccharides for biomedical applications: chemical modification approaches. Molecules 2008;13:2069-106.
17. Pluemsab W, Sakairi N, Furuike T. Synthesis and inclusion property of α-cyclodextrin-linked alginate. Polymer 2005;46:9778–83.
18. Kulkarni A, Soppimath K, Aminabhavi T, Dave A. Polymeric sodium alginate interpenetrating network beads for the controlled release of chlorpyrifos. J Appl Polym Sci 2002;85:911-8.
19. Saether HV, Holme HK, Maurstad G, Smidsrød O, Stokke BT. Polyelectrolyte complex formation using alginate and chitosan. Carbohydrate Polym 2008;74:813–21.
20. Prajapati BG, Sawant KK. Poly electrolyte complex of chitosan alginate for local drug delivery. Int J Chem Tech Res 2009;1:643-8.
21. George M, Abraham TE. Polyionic hydrocolloids for the intestinal delivery of protein drugs: Alginate and chitosan—a review. J Controlled Release 2006;114:1–14.
22. Bergera J, Reista M, Mayera JM, Feltb O, Peppas NA, Gurny R. Structure and interactions in covalently and ionicallycrosslinked chitosan hydrogels for biomedical applications. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2004;57:19–34.
23. Rinaudo M. Chitin and chitosan: properties and applications. Prog Polym Sci 2006;31:603–32.
24. Liu TY, Lin YL. Novel pH-sensitive chitosan-based hydrogel for encapsulating poorly water-soluble drugs. Acta Biomaterialia 2010;6:1423-9.
25. Hsu SH, Whu SW, Hsieh SC, Tsai CL, Chen DC, Tan TS. Evaluation of chitosan-alginate-hyaluronate complexes modified by an RGD-containing protein as tissue-engineering scaffolds for cartilage regeneration. Artif Organs 2004;28:693–703.
26. Yuan Q, Venkatasubramanian R, Hein S, Misra RDK. A stimulus-responsive magnetic nanoparticle drug carrier: magnetite encapsulated by chitosan-grafted-copolymer. Acta Biomater 2008;4:1024–37.
27. Liu H, Li H, Cheng WJ, Yang Y, Zhu MY, Zhou CR. Novel injectable calcium phosphate/chitosan composites for bone substitute materials. Acta Biomater 2006;2:557–65.
28. Gan Q, Wang T, Cochrane C, McCarron P. Modulation of surface charge, particle size and morphological properties of chitosan-TPP nanoparticles intended for gene delivery. Colloids Surf B 2005;44:65-73.
29. He P, Davis SS, Illum L. In vitro evaluation of the mucoadhesive properties of chitosan microspheres. Int J Pharm 1998;166:75-88.
30. Li X, Kong X, Shi S, Zheng X, Guo G, Wei Y. Preparation of alginate coated chitosan microparticles for vaccine delivery. BMC Biotechnol 2008;8:89-99.
31. Wichterle O, Lim D. Hydrophilic gels for biological use. Nature 1960;185:117–8.
32. Anal AK, Stevens WF. Chitosan–alginate multilayer beads for controlled release of ampicillin. Int J Pharm 2005;290:45–54.
33. De S, Robinson D. Polymer relationships during preparation of chitosan–alginate and poly-l-lysine–alginate nanospheres. J Controlled Release 2003;89:101–12.
34. Hari PR, Chandy T, Sharma CP. Chitosan/calcium–alginate beads for oral delivery of insulin. J Appl Polym Sci 1996;59:1795–801.
35. Sezer AD, Akbuga J. Release characteristics of chitosan treated alginate beads: II. Sustained release of a low molecular drug from chitosan treated alginate beads. J Microencapsul 1999;16:687–96.
36. Mohy Eldin MS, Seuror E, Nasr M, El-Aassar M, Tieama H. Affinity covalent immobilization of glucoamylase onto ρ-Benzoquinone activated alginate beads: i. beads preparation and characterization. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2011;164:10–22.
37. Oliveira AND, Santana HD, Zaia CTBV, Zaia DAM. A study of reaction between quinones and thiourea: determination of thiourea in orange juice. J Food Compos Anal 2004;17:165–77.
38. Mohy Eldin MS, Omer AM, Soliman EA, Hassan EA. Superabsorbent polyacrylamide grafted carboxymethyl cellulose pH sensitive hydrogel: I. Preparation and characterization. Desalin Water Treat 2013;51:3196–206.
39. Mohamed F, Bashar A. Graft copolymerization on to Chitosan-1. Grafting of methylmethacrylate using ceric ammonium nitrate as an initiator. Acta Chim Slovaca 2003;50:275-85.
40. Mohy Eldin MS, El-Sherif HM, Soliman EA, Elzatahry AA, Omer AM. Polyacrylamide-grafted carboxymethyl cellulose: smart pH-Sensitive hydrogel for protein concentration. J Appl Polym Sci 2011;12:469-79.
41. Xu Y, Zhan C, Fan L, Wang L, Zheng H. Preparation of dual crosslinked alginate-chitosan blend gel beads and in vitro controlled release in oral site-specific drug delivery system. Int J Pharm 2007;336:329–37.
Statistics
423 Views | 6094 Downloads
How to Cite
Ms., M. E., O. Am., W. Ma., T. Tm., A. E. Ms., and I. Sa. “NOVEL SMART PH SENSITIVE CHITOSAN GRAFTED ALGINATE HYDROGEL MICROCAPSULES FOR ORAL PROTEIN DELIVERY: I. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 7, no. 11, Aug. 2015, pp. 320-6, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ijpps/article/view/7699.
Section
Original Article(s)