ANTIDIABETIC AND ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC EFFECTS OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CITRULLUS LANATUS SEEDS IN RATS
Objective: Aim of the present study is to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effect of methanolic extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds (MECL) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats.
Methods: Diabetes was induced by a single dose of STZ (65 mg/kg) in citrate buffer, while the normal control group was given the vehicle only. After three days of induction of diabetes, the diabetic animals were treated further four weeks with MECL (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg) and glibenclamide (4 mg/kg). Blood glucose level was estimated every week of the study starting from d 1. At the end of study period, biochemical estimations of blood i.e. lipid profile was performed and animals were sacrificed to carry out liver glycogen estimations.
Results: At the end of study period, i.e. 28 d, STZ-induced rats showed marked hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia. Body weight was reduced and the blood sugar level was significantly elevated in diabetic rats. The four-week treatment with MECL in a concentration of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg significantly reversed the elevated levels of fasting blood glucose, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, liver glycogen, glycosylated haemoglobin with increase in body weight of diabetic rats.
Conclusion: Thus the present study suggested the useful potential of Citrullus lanatus seed in diabetes due to its antidiabetic, hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic properties.
2. Arora S, Ojha SK, Vohora D. Characterisation of Streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus in swiss albino mice. Global J Pharmacol 2009;3:81-4.
3. Jothivel N, Ponnusamy SP, Appachi M. Antidiabetic activities of methanol leaf extract of Costus pictus D. Don in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. J Health Sci 2007;53:655-63.
4. Bastaki S. Review diabetes mellitus and its treatment. Int J Diabetes Metab 2005;13:111-34.
5. Dixit VP, Joshi S. Antiatherosclerotic effects of alfalfa and injection in chicks: a biochemical evaluation. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1985;29:47-50.
6. Bandawane D, Juvekar A, Juvekar M. Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic effects of Alstonia scholaris Linn bark in streptozotocin induced diabetic Rats. Indian J Pharm Educ Res 2011;45:114-20.
7. Hassan LEA, Sirat HM, Yogi SMA, Koko WS, Abdelwahab SI. In vitro antimicrobial activities of chloroformic, hexane and ethanolic extracts of Citrullus lanatus var. citroids (Wild melon). J Med Plants Res 2011;5:1338-44.
8. Varghese S, Narmadha R, Gomathi D, Kalaiselvi M, Devaki K. Phytochemical screening and HPTLC finger printing analysis of Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) seed. J Acute Dis 2013;2:122-6.
9. Ajayi IA, Ajibade O, Oderinde RA. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of some plant seeds. Res J Chem Sci 2011;1:58-62.
10. Hussain SA, Marouf BH. Flavonoids as alternatives in treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Acad J Med Plants 2013;1:31-6.
11. Jain S, Edwin S. Isolation, fractionation and evaluation of the anti-inflammatory properties of Citrullus lanatus thumb. Asian J Biomed Pharm Sci 2013;3:66-72.
12. Arambewela LSR, Arawwawala LDAM, Ratnasooriya WD. An antidiabetic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Piper betle leaves in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;102:239-45.
13. Adaramoye OA, Adeyemi EO. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of fractions from kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola in streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus in rats. J Pharm Pharmacol 2006;58:121-8.
14. Carrol VV, Longly RW, Joseph HR. Determination of glycogen in liver and muscle by use of anthrone reagent. J Biol Chem 1956;220:583-93.
15. Kaneto H, Kajimoto Y, Miyagawa J. Beneficial effects of antioxidants in diabetes: possible protection of pancreatic Î²-cell against glucose toxicity. Diabetes 1999;480:2398-406.
16. Luo J, Fort DM, Carlson TJ, Noamesi BK, nii-Amon-Kotei D, King SR. Cryptolepsis sangiunolenta: An ethnobotanical approach to drug discovery and the isolation of a potentially useful new antihyperglycemic agent. Diabetic Med 1998;15:367-74.
17. Ivorra MD, Paya M, Villar A. A review of natural products and plants as potential antidiabetic drugs. J Ethnopharmacol 1989;27:243-75.
18. Marles RJ, Famsmith NR. Antidiabetic plants and their active constituents. Phytomedicine 1995;2:137-89.
19. Kesari AN, Gupta RK, Singh SK, Diwakar S, Watal G. Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of Aegle marmelos seed extract in normal and alloxan induced rabbits. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;97:247-51.
20. Gupta RK, Kesari AN, Murthy PS, Chandra R, Tandon V. Hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effects of ethanolic extract leaves of Annona squamosa L in experimental animals. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;99:75-81.
21. Tripathi KD. Essentials of medical pharmacology. 5th ed. New Delhi: Jaypee Publication; 2003.
22. Chitra S, Patil MB, Ravi Kumar, Swati P. Preliminary phytochemical investigation and wound healing activity of Allium cepa linn (Liliaceae). Int J Pharma Pharm Sci 2009;2:167-75.
23. Gurib-Fakim A. Medicinal plants: Traditions of yesterday and drugs of tomorrow. Mol Aspects Med 2006;27:1â€“93.
24. Pereez RM, Perez JA, Garcia LMD, Sossa HM. Neuropharmacological activity of Solanum nigrum fruit. J Ethnopharmacol 1998;62:43-8.
25. Son YO, Kim JC, Chung GH, Lee JC. A ripe fruit of Solanum nigrum L. inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis. Food Chem Toxicol 2003;41:1421-8.
26. Erememisoglu A, Kelestimur F, Kokel AH, Utsun H, Tekol Y, Ustdal M. Hypoglycemic effect of Zizyphus jujube leaves. J Pharm Pharmacol 1995;47:72-4.
27. Grover JK, Vats U, Yadav S. Effect of feeding aqueous extract of Petrocarpus merscupium on glycogen content of the tissues and the key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism. Mol Cell Biochem 2002;241:53-9.
28. Akbarzadeh A, Norouzian D, Mehrabi MR, Jamshidi SH. Induction of diabetes by Streptozotocin in rats. Indian J Clin Biochem 2007;22:60-4.
29. Guyton AC, Hall JE. Textbook of medical physiology. 9th ed. Philadelphia; 1996.
30. Monnier VK. Non enzymatic glycosylation and browining in diabetes and aging. Diabetes 1982;31:57-66.
31. Goodman and Gilmonâ€™s the Pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 10th ed. USA McGrew Hill; 2001.