• Eman M. Aly Assistant Professor of Biophysics, Biophysics and Laser Science Unit, Visual Science Department, Research Institute of Ophthalmology


Objective: Diabetes is known to induce oxidative stress along with deranging various metabolisms. One of the most serious complications of diabetes, a disease that has seen a worldwide increase in the prevalence, is diabetic retinopathy, which is a leading cause of acquired blindness. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of oat on the diabetic-induced oxidative stress and if this can attenuate the development of diabetic retinopathy.

Methods: Changes on retina structure were performed by using the application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

Results: The results demonstrated that diabetic retinopathy was associated with changes on the retina structure which appear after received a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ) 60 mg/kg. These changes clearly appeared in the NH-OH, CH and fingerprint regions. The use of oat in case of diabetic was associated with different beneficial effects on the retina constituents, as showed by the changes toward control of the same Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy bands.

Conclusion: Oat can be considered as a novel treatment modality for diabetic retinopathy and further studies is required to optimize dosing and formulations that are maximally effective.


Keywords: Rats, Diabetic, Streptozotocin, Retina, FTIR-Oat


Download data is not yet available.


1. Brownlee M. The pathobiology of diabetic complications: a unifying mechanism. Diabetes 2005;54:1615–25.
2. Madsen-Bouterse SA, Kowluru RA. Oxidative stress and diabetic retinopathy: pathophysiological mechanisms and treatment perspectives. Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2008;9:315–27.
3. Zheng L, Kern TS. Role of nitric oxide, superoxide, peroxynitrite and PARP in diabetic retinopathy. Front Biosci 2009;14:3974–87.
4. Giacco F. Brownlee M: Oxidative stress and diabetic complications. Circ Res 2010;107:1058–70.
5. Silva KC, Rosales MA, Hamassaki DE. Green tea is neuroprotective in diabetic retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Visual Sci 2013;54:1325-36.
6. Kowluru RA. Mitochondria damage in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy and in the metabolic memory associated with its continued progression. Curr Med Chem 2013;20:3226-33.
7. Madsen-Bouterse S, Zhong Q, Mohammad G, Ho YS, Kowluru RA. Oxidative damage of mitochondrial DNA in diabetes, and its protection by manganese superoxide dismutase. Free Rad Res 2010;44:313-21.
8. Santos JM, Tewari S, Goldberg AFX, Kowluru RA. Mitochondria biogenesis and the development of diabetic retinopathy. Free Rad Biol Med 2011;51:1849-60.
9. Kern TS, Kowluru R, Engerman RL. Abnormalities of retinal metabolism in diabetes or galactosemia: ATPases and glutathione. Invest Ophthalmol Visual Sci 1994;35:2962–7.
10. Bhaskar JJ, Shobha MS, Sambaiah K, Salimath PV. Beneficial effects of banana (Musa sp. var. elakki bale) flower and pseudostem on hyperglycemia and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Physiol Biochem 2011;67:415–25.
11. Kern TS, Tang J, Mizutani M. Response of capillary cell death to aminoguanidine predicts the development of retinopathy: comparison of diabetes and galactosemia. Invest Ophthalmol Visual Sci 2000;41:3972–8.
12. Joussen AM, Poulaki V, Le ML. A central role for inflammation in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. FASEB J 2003;18:1450–2.
13. Nakagawa T, Yokozawa T, Terasawa K, Nakanishi K. Therapeutic usefulness of Keishi-bukuryo-gan for diabetic nephropathy. J Pharm Pharmacol 2003;55:219–27.
14. Kowluru RA, Kern TS, Engerman RL. Abnormalities of retinal metabolism in diabetes or experimental galactosemia. IV. Antioxidant defense system. Free Rad Biol Med 1997;22:587–92.
15. Kowluru RA, Tang J, Kern TS. Abnormalities of retinal metabolism in diabetes and galactosemia. VII. Effect of long-term administration of antioxidants on retinal oxidative stress and the development of retinopathy. Diabetes 2001;50:1938–42.
16. Kowluru R, Kern TS, Engerman RL. Abnormalities of retinal metabolism in diabetes or galactosemia II. Comparison of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in retina and cerebral cortex, and effects of antioxidant therapy. Curr Eye Res 1994;13:891–6.
17. Würsch P, Pi-Sunyer FX. The role of viscous soluble fiber in the metabolic control of diabetes: a review with special emphasis on cereals rich in β-glucan. Diabetes Care 1997;20:1774–80.
18. Vuksan V, Sievenpiper JL, Xu Z. Konjac-mannan and American ginseng: emerging alternative therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Am Coll Nutr 2001;20:370S–80S.
19. Hallfrisch J, Behall KM. Mechanisms of the effects of grains on insulin and glucose responses. J Am Coll Nutr 2000;19:S320–S25.
20. Wood PJ, Braaten JT, Scott FW, Riedel KD, Wolynetz MS, Collins MW. Effect of dose and modification of viscous properties of oat gum on plasma glucose and insulin following an oral glucose load. Br J Nutr 1994;72:731–43.
21. Tapola N, Karvonen H, Niskanen L, Mikola M, Sarkkinen E. Glycemic responses of oat bran products in type 2 diabetic patients. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2005;15:255–61.
22. Panahi SA, Ezatagha F, Temelli T, Vasanthan Vuksan V. β-glucan from two sources of oat concentrates affect postprandial glycemia in relation to the level of viscosity. J Am Coll Nutr 2007;26:639–44.
23. Sayed AR. Thymoquinone and proanthocyanidin attenuation of diabetic nephropathy in rats. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2012;16:808–15.
24. Dovbeshko GI, Gridina NY, Kruglova EB, Pashchuk OP. FTIR spectroscopy studies of nucleic acid damage. Talanta 2000;53:233–46.
25. Yang L, Xu Y, Su Y. Study on the variations of molecular structures of some biomolecules induced by free electron laser using FTIR spectroscopy. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res Sect B 2003;258:362–8.
26. Kowluru RA, Zhong Q, Santos JM. Thandampallayam beneficial effects of the nutritional supplements on the development of diabetic retinopathy. Nutr Metab 2014;11:8.
27. Severcan F, Toyran N, Kaptan N, Turan B. Fourier transform infrared study of the effect of diabetes on rat liver and heart tissues in the C-H region. Talanta 2000;53:55–9.
28. Sekiya N, Kishigami A, Naoki H. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study on retinochrome and its primary photoproduct lumiretinochrome. FEBS Lett 1991;280:107-11.
29. Kong J, YU S. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis of protein secondary structures. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin 2007;39:549–59.
230 Views | 631 Downloads
How to Cite
Aly, E. M. “FTIR ANALYSIS FOR RETINA ASSOCIATED WITH DIABETIC CHANGES AND TREATMENT WITH OAT”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 7, no. 11, Aug. 2015, pp. 277-80, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ijpps/article/view/8083.
Original Article(s)