A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE ANTI-OXIDATIVE AND ANTI-DIABETIC POTENTIAL OF IN VITRO AND IN VIVO ROOT AND LEAF EXTRACTS OF WITHANIA SOMNIFERA ON STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS


Somanatha Jena, Ram C. Jena, Rasmita Bhol, Khusbu Agarwal, Ansuman Sarangi, Pramod K. Sahu, Swarna L. Mishra

Abstract


Objective: The present investigation explores the possibilities of using the in vitro and in vivo root and leaf extracts of Withania somnifera for anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidaemic effects on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Methods: In vitro shoot cultures of Withania somnifera were raised by the axillary proliferation in nodal explants from a garden grown plant using Murashige and Skoog medium then in vitro raised roots and shoots were used for the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidaemic experiment. After 72 h of STZ administration, the fasting blood glucose levels were measured and the rats showing FBG level>220 mg/dl were considered to be diabetic and were used for the hyperglycemic study. In vitro and in vivo methanolic root and leaf extracts were orally administered daily to diabetic rats for eight weeks. After the treatment period, blood glucose and serum enzymes like aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-c high density lipoprotein-bound cholesterol, LDL-c low density lipoprotein-bound cholesterol, LDH, serum protein level, total phenolics and anti-oxidative analysis (DPPH and FRAP) were determined.

Results: The levels of blood glucose, AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, HDL-c significantly increased by the use of in vitro methanolic root extracts compared to normal control rats. However, remarkable loss of total protein, albumin, albumin: globulin (A: G) ratio was reported in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by using in vitro root extracts. Methanolic in vitro root extract at the dose levels of 300 mg/kg body weight produced a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose (FBG) level by 102.65 with respect to initial fasting blood glucose level after 30 d of the treatment. In vitro root extract demonstrated highest DPPH and FRAP free radical scavenging activity, i.e. 86.55±1.77 and 48.87±2.55 than other extracts.

Conclusion: It may be concluded that methanolic in vitro root extract W. somnifera at the dose (300 mg/kg) has more potent anti-hyperglycaemic activity than the other in vitro and in vivo extracts of leaf and root on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and was also found to be similar in effect to that of the standard drug ‘Glibenclamide’.


Keywords


Withania somnifera, Anti-diabetic, Anti-hyperlipidaemic, Diabetes mellitus, Streptozotocin, Anti-oxidant, DPPH, FRAP

| PDF | HTML |

References


Sangwan RS, Chaurasiya ND, Misra LN, Lal P, Uniyal GC, Sharma R, et al. Phytochemical variability in commercial herbal products and preparations. Curr Sci 2004;86:461-5.

Akhtar FM, Ali MR. Study of the antidiabetic effect of a compound medicinal plant prescription in normal and diabetic rabbits. J Pak Med Assoc 1984;34:239-44.

Brinker F. Herb contraindications and drug interactions. 2nd edn. USA; Eclectic Medical Publications: 1998. p. 36-82.

Pepato MT, Baviera AM, Vendramini RC, Perez MPMS, Ketelhut IC, Brunetti IL. Cissus sicyoides (princess vine) in the long-term treatment of streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Biotechnol Appl Biochem 2003;37:15-20.

Budhiraja RD, Sudhir S. Review of the biological activity of withanolides. J Sci Ind Res 1987;42:488-91.

Chopra RN. Glossary of Indian medicinal plants. Academic Publishers: New Delhi, India; 1994.

Glotter E, Kirson I, Abraham A, Lavie D. Constituents of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. XII. The withanolides of chemotype III. Tetrahedron 1973;29:1353-64.

Devi PU, Sharada AC, Solomon FE. Antitumor and radiosensitizing effects of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) on a transplantable mouse tumor sarcoma 180. Indian J Exp Biol 1993;31:607-11.

Nittala SS, Lavie S. Chemistry and genetics of withanolides in Withania somnifera hybrids. Phytochemicals 1988;20:2741-8.

Kandil FE, Elsayeh NH, Abou-Douh AM, Ishak MS, Mabry TJ. Flavonol glycosides and phenolics from Withania somnifera. Phytochemicals 1994;37:1215-6.

Bhattacharya SK, Satyam SK, Chakrabarti A. Effect of trasina an herbal ayurvedic formulation, on pancreatic islet superoxide dismutase activity in hyperglycaemic rats. Indian J Exp Biol 1997;35:297-9.

Tripathi AK, Shukla YN, Sushilkumar T. Ashwagandha Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanaceae): a status report. J Med Aromat Plant Sci 1996;18:46-62.

Andallu B, Radhika B, Dawar R. Hypoglycaemic, diuretic and hypocholesterolemic effects of winter cherry Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal root. Indian J Exp Biol 2000;6:607-9.

Anwer T, Sharma M, Pillai KK, Iqbal M. Effect of Withania somnifera on insulin sensitivity in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2008;102:498-503.

Manach C, Scalbert A, Morand C, Remesy C, Jimenez L. Polyphenols: food sources and bioavailability. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79:727-47.

Sharma B, Viswanath G, Salunke R, Roy P. Effects of flavonoid-rich extract from seeds of Eugenia jambolana (L.) on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in diabetic mice. Food Chem 2008;110:697-705.

Murashige T, Skoog F. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassay with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 1962;15:473-97.

Stanley MP, Venugopal MP. Antioxidant action of Tinospora cordifolia root extract in alloxan diabetic rats. Phytother Res 2001;15:213-8.

Burits M, Bucar F. Antioxidant activity of Nigella sativa essential oil. Photother Res 2000;14:323-8.

Cuendet M, K Hostettmann, Potterat O, Dyatmiko W. Iridoid glucosides with free radical scavenging properties from Fagvaea blumei. Helv Chim Acta 1997;80:1144-52.

Yen GC, Chen HY. Antioxidant activity of various tea extracts in relation to their antimutagenicity. J Agric Food Chem 1995;43:27-32.

Sahu PK, Jena RC, Jena S, Panda A, Bhol R. Antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of leaf and bark extracts of Murraya koenigii on streptozotocine induced diabetic rats. Asian J Chem 2012;25:6591-6.

Majorie MC. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Microbial Rev 1999;12:564-82.

Rasch R. Prevention of diabetic glomerulopathy in streptozotocin diabetic rats by insulin treatment: albumin excretion. Diabetologia 1980;18:413-6.

Diplock AT, Charleux JL, Crozier-Willi G, Kok FJ, Rice-Evans C, Roberfroid M, et al. Functional food science and defence against reactive oxidative species. Br J Nutr 1998;80:1:77-112.

Onoja SO, Anaga AO. Evaluation of the antidiabetic and antioxidant potentials of methanolic leaf extract of Helianthus annuus on alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats. Comp Clin Pathol 2013;23:1565-73.

Naik GH, Priyadarsini KI, Satav GJ. Comparative antioxidant activity of individual herbal components used in ayurvedic medicine. Phytochemicals 2003;63:97-104.

Mosquera OM, Correa YM, Buitrago DC, Niño J. Antioxidant activity of twenty-five plants from Colombian biodiversity. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2007;102:631-4.

Patel DK, Prasad SK, Kumar R, Hemalatha S. An overview on antidiabetic medicinal plants having insulin mimetic property. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012;2:320-30.

Colledge RN, Walker RB, Ralston HS. Davidson’s principle and practice of medicine. Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier, Amsterdam; 2010.

Akhtar FM, Ali MR. Study of the anti-diabetic effect of a compound medicinal plant prescription in normal and diabetic rabbits. J Pak Med Assoc 1984;34:239-44.

Singh G, Sharma PK, Dudhe R, Singh S. Biological activities of Withania somnifera. Ann Biol Res 2010;1:56-63.

Rajangam U, Sampath K, Thankaraj SM, Manoharan R, Vasudevan RA, Sei CK, et al. Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of Withania somnifera root and leaf extracts on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Int J Mol Sci 2009;10:2367-82.

Tripathi AK, Shukla YN, Sushilkumar T. Ashwagandha Withania somnifera (L.) dunal (Solanaceae): a status report. J Med Aromat Plant Sci 1996;18:46-62.

Andallu B, Radhika B, Dawar R. Hypoglycaemic, diuretic and hypocholesterolemic effects of winter cherry Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal root. Indian J Exp Biol 2000;6:607-9.

Bhattacharya SK, Satyan KS, Ghosal S. Antioxidant activity of glycol withanolides from Withania somnifera. Indian J Exp Biol 1997;35:236-9.

Sivajothi V, Dey A, Jayakar B, Rajkapoor B. Anti-hyperglycemic property of Tragia cannabinain streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Med Food 2007;10:361-5.

Pathak A, Dhawan D. Effect of lithium on the levels of blood urea and creatinine in diabetic rats. Med Sci Res 1998;26:855-6.

Anbalagan K, Sadique J. Influence of an Indian Medicine (Ashwagandha) on acute phase reactants in inflammation. Indian J Exp Biol 1981;19:245-9.

Mahboob M, Rahman MF, Grover P. Serum lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels in male and female diabetic patients. Singapore Med J 2005;46:322-4.

Murray RK, Granner DK, Mayes PA, Rodwell VW. Harper’s Biochemistry. 25th edn. Appleton and Lange, Stanford CT, USA; 2000.

Rajesh R, Chitra K, Padmaa MP. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity of aerial parts of Aerva lanata Linn Juss in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Asian Pasific J Trop Biomed 2012;2:924-9.

Gokce G, Haznedaroglu MZ. Evaluation of antidiabetic, antioxidant and vasoprotective effects of Posidonia oceanica extract. J Ethnopharmacol 2008;115:122-30.

Prince PSM, Menon VP, Pari L. Effect of Syzigium cumini extracts on hepatic hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase in experimental diabetes. Phytother Res 1997;11:529-31.

Prince PSM, Menon VP. Hypoglycaemic and other related actions of Tinospora cardifolia roots in alloxan–induced diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;70:9-15.

Khan BA, Abraham A, Leelamma S. Anit-oxidant effects of curry leaf, Murraya koenigii and mustard seeds, Brassica juncea in rats fed with high-fat diet. Indian J Exp Biol 1997;35:148-50.

Radhika S, Senthilkumar R, Arumugam P. A review on ethnic florae with antihyperglycemic efficacy. Int J Herb Med 2013;1:55-62.

Vinuthan MK, Girish KV, Ravindra JP, Narayan JK. Effect of extracts of Murraya koenigii leaves on the levels of blood glucose and plasma insulin in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2004;48:348-52.

Chude MA, OJ Orisakwe, KS Gamaniel, OH Vongtau, E Obi. Hypoglycaemic effect of the aqueous extract of Boerhavia diffusa leaves. Ind J Pharmacol 2001;33:215-6.

Pari L, Amarnath SM. Antidiabetic activity of Boerhaavia diffusa L.: effect on hepatic key enzymes in experimental diabetes. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;91:109-13.

Rerup CC. Drugs producing diabetes through damage of the insulin secreting cells. Pharmacol Rev 1970;22:485-518.

Grodsky GM, Epstein GH, Fanska R, Karam JH. The pancratic action of the sulfonylureas. Fed Proc 1977;36:2714-9.

Yallow RS, Black H, Villazan M, Berson SA. Comparison of plasma insulin levels following administration of tolbutamide and glucose. Diabetes J 1960;9:356-62.

Kandil FE, Elsayeh NH, Abou-Douh AM, Ishak MS, Mabry TJ. Flavonol glycosides and phenolics from Withania somnifera. Phytochemicals 1994;37:1215-6.

Pruthi JS. Spices, Condiment. National Book Trust, Green Park, JK. Offset Printers, 315, Jama Masjid, New Delhi; 1979. p. 108-11.

Berne RM. Levy MN. Control of cardiac output: Coupling of heart and blood vessels. In: Berne RM, Levy MN. Eds. Physiology. Mosby. Co: St. Louis: 1988. p. 525-39.

Murray RK, Granner DK, Mayes A, Rodwell VW. Harper’s biochemistry. 24th edn. Prentice-Hall International: USA; 1996.

Satyanarayana U. In: A Sen. Biotechnology, Metabolism in Biochemistry, Books, and Allied (P) Ltd. 1st edn. Chintamoni Das Lane; Calcutta; 1999. p. 247-449.

Rasch R, Mogensen CE. Urinary excretion of albumin and total protein in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats. Acta Endocrinol 1980;95:376-81.

Shirwaikar A, Rajendra K, Barik R. Effect of aqueous bark extract of Garuga pinnata Roxb. In streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type-II diabetes mellitus. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;107:285-90.

Al-Logmani AS, Zari TA. Effects of Nigella sativa L. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume oils on some physiological parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Bol Latinoam Caribe Plant Med Aromat 2009;8:86-96.




About this article

Title

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE ANTI-OXIDATIVE AND ANTI-DIABETIC POTENTIAL OF IN VITRO AND IN VIVO ROOT AND LEAF EXTRACTS OF WITHANIA SOMNIFERA ON STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

Keywords

Withania somnifera, Anti-diabetic, Anti-hyperlipidaemic, Diabetes mellitus, Streptozotocin, Anti-oxidant, DPPH, FRAP

DOI

10.22159/ijpps.2016v8i10.8103

Date

12-08-2016

Additional Links

Manuscript Submission

Journal

International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Vol 8, Issue 10, 2016 Page: 85-91

Online ISSN

0975-1491

Statistics

194 Views | 65 Downloads

Authors & Affiliations

Somanatha Jena
Post Graduate Department of Botany, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar 751004, Odisha, India
India

Ram C. Jena
Post Graduate Department of Botany, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar 751004, Odisha, India

Rasmita Bhol
Department of Biotechnology, Rama DeviWomen’s University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

Khusbu Agarwal
Post Graduate Department of Botany, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar 751004, Odisha, India

Ansuman Sarangi
Trident Academy of Creative Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

Pramod K. Sahu
Department of Zoology, Rama Devi Women’s University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

Swarna L. Mishra
Department of Zoology, Rama Devi Women’s University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India


Article Tools



Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.