SELECTIVE CECAL BACTERIAL CHANGES MEDIATE THE ADVERSE EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH HIGH PALMOLEIN OR HIGH STARCH DIETS: PROPHYLACTIC ROLE OF FLAX OIL
Keywords:Palmolein, Starch, Flax oil, Calorie intake, Cecal bacteria, Immune function, Body composition, Lipid profile, Omega 3 fatty acids
Objective: Studies on the dynamics of gut bacteria in relation to metabolic adverse effects induced by high palmolein or high starch diets and in relation to health benefits of uncommon foods are lacking. Our aim was to assess under controlled conditions, the impact of vegetable based palmitic acid rich, high fat diet or a high starch diet on various metabolic parameters in relation to selective gut bacterial alterations in rats and also to see the effect of flaxseed oil supplementation on these parameters.
Methods: Wistar Rats were fed for 4 mo either a control diet(CT) or a 30% high fat diet (HF) or HF diet with flax oil supplemented at two different doses (HFF1 and HFF2) or a 78% high starch diet (HC) after which they were sacrificed and analyzed for selective cecal bacteria, hematology, immune function and body composition.
Results: High palmolein diet fed rats showed a decrease in colony forming units of lactobacillus, enterococci, streptococci bacteria and an increase in enterobacteriaceae in the cecum unlike HC fed rats. While high palmolein diet was found to impair immunity and increase inflammation, high starch diet affected body composition and lipid profile. Supplementing the flax seed oil ameliorated most of the adverse effects of high palmolein diet.
Conclusions: Independent of energy intakes both high palmolein and high starch intakes have differential adverse effects. It can be envisaged that the adverse effects of feeding palmolein are mediated through immune impairment and inflammatory response, which in turn are associated with altered gut bacteria profile; and flax oil was found to have a prophylactic role in controlling these adverse effects. This study emphasizes the need to evaluate immunological as well as bacterial profile while assessing the safety of dietary fats in addition to traditional methods.
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