• Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi Chiang Mai University
  • Noppawat Pengkumsri Chiang Mai University
  • Manee Saelee Chiang Mai University
  • Periyanaina Kesika Chiang Mai University
  • Sasithorn Sirilun Chiang Mai University
  • Sartjin Peerajan Health Innovation Institute
  • Chaiyavat Chaiyasut Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand


Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the chemical stability and antioxidant ability of selected anthocyanidin (ACN) upon various commonly used physical treatments.

Methods: Pure compounds of representative ACNs (cyanidin, peonidin) were subjected to microwave, heat, and sonication treatments followed by analyzing the rate of degradation by LC-MS. The changes in the antioxidant ability of ACNs were also assessed by DPPH and ABTS assay.

Results: All the tested treatment strategies accelerated the degradation and diminished the antioxidant capacity of pure ACN, more specifically heat exposure cause ~ 90% of degradation and ~3 fold reduction in antioxidant capacity. About 91.34% and 87.73% of cyanidin and peonidin degradation were documented after heat treatment, respectively. Relatively sonication has not accelerated the ACN debasement, but significant level of degradation (p<0.05) was observed.

Conclusion: The study results suggested that the maximum concern is required for the selection of the method of the degerming process during the production of precious formulations. This study revealed that microwave and sonication processes are better than dry heat based aseptic methods for pure ACNs based product, especially in pharmaceuticals with respect to the stability and bioactivity of ACN.


Keywords: Anthocyanidin, Antioxidant capacity, Physical treatment, Phenolic acids


Download data is not yet available.


1. Van Tunen AJ, Mol JNM. Control of flavonoids synthesis and manipulation of flower color. Plant Biotech 1991;2:94-125.
2. Lila MA. Anthocyanins and human health: An in vitro investigative approach. J Biomed Biotechnol 2004;2004:306-13.
3. Wrolstad RE. Anthocyanin pigments-bioactivity and coloring properties. J Food Sci 2004;69:C419-25.
4. Wallace TC. Anthocyanins in cardiovascular disease. Adv Nutr 2011;2:1-7.
5. Schurch C, Blum P, Zulli F. Potential of plant cells in culture for cosmetic application. Phytochem Rev 2008;7:599-605.
6. Shipp J, Abdel-Aal El-SM. Food applications and physiological effects of anthocyanins as functional food ingredients. Open Food Sci J 2010;4:7-22.
7. Jaganath IB, Crozier A. Dietary flavonoids and phenolic compounds. In: Fraga CG. editor. Plant Phenolics and Human Health: Biochemistry, Nutrition, and Pharmacology. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; 2009.
8. Kahkonen MP, Heinonen M. Antioxidant activity of anthocyanins and their aglycones. J Agric Food Chem 2003;51:628-33.
9. He YH, Xiao C, Wang YS, Zhao LH, Zhao HY, Tong Y, Zhou J, et al. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of cyanidin from cherries on rat adjuvant-induced arthritis. Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi 2005;30:1602-5.
10. Hyun JW, Chung HS. Cyanidin and Malvidin from Oryza sativa cv. Heugjinjubyeo mediate cytotoxicity against human monocytic leukemia cells by arrest of G2/M phase and induction of apoptosis. J Agric Food Chem 2004;52:2213-7.
11. You Q, Chen F, Wang X, Luo PG, Jiang Y. Inhibitory effects of muscadine anthocyanins on α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase activities. J Agric Food Chem 2011;59:9506-11.
12. Tanaka Y, Sasaki N, Ohmiya A. Biosynthesis of plant pigments: anthocyanins, betalains, and carotenoids. Plant J 2008;54:733-49.
13. Winkel-Shirley B. Flavonoid biosynthesis. A colorful model for genetics, biochemistry, cell biology, and biotechnology. Plant Physiol 2001;126:485-93.
14. Grotewold E. The genetics and biochemistry of floral pigments. Annu Rev Plant Biol 2006;57:761-80.
15. Yu O, Matsuno M, Subramanian S. Flavonoid compounds in flowers: genetics and biochemistry In: da Silva JAT. editor. Floriculture, Ornamental and Plant Biotechnology. UK: Global Science Books Ltd; 2006. p. 282-92.
16. Allan AC, Hellens RP, Laing WA. MYB transcription factors that color our fruit. Trends Plant Sci 2008;13:99-102.
17. Mishra DK, Dolan KD, Yang L. Confidence intervals for modeling anthocyanin retention in grape pomace during nonisothermal heating. J Food Sci 2008;73: E9-15.
18. Oren-Shamir M. Does anthocyanin degradation play a significant role in determining pigment concentration in plants. Plant Sci 2009;177:310-6.
19. Sadilova E, Carle R, Stintzing FC. Thermal degradation of anthocyanins and its impact on color and in vitro antioxidant capacity. Mol Nutr Food Res 2007;51:1461-71.
20. Pérez-Magariño S, Revilla I, González-San José ML, Beltrán S. Various applications of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to the analysis of phenolic compounds. J Chromatogr A 1999;847:75-81.
21. Giusti MM, Rodríguez-Saona LE, Griffin D, Wrolstad RE. Electrospray and tandem mass spectroscopy as tools for anthocyanin characterization. J Agric Food Chem 1999;47:4657-64.
22. Prior RL, Lazarus SA, Cao G, Muccitelli H, Hammerstone JF. Identification of procyanidins and anthocyanins in blueberries and cranberries (Vaccinium spp.) using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem 2001;49:1270-6.
23. Singhatong S, Leelarungrayub D, Chaiyasut C. Antioxidant and toxicity activities of Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb. heartwood extract. J Med Plants Res 2010;4:947-53.
24. Skrede G, Wrolstad RE, Durst RW. Changes in anthocyanins and polyphenolics during juice processing of highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.). J Food Sci 2000;65:357-64.
25. Camire ME, Chaovanalikit A, Dougherty MP, Briggs J. Blueberry and grape anthocyanins as breakfast cereal colorants. J Food Sci 2002;67:438-41.
26. Castañeda-Ovando A, de Lourdes Pacheco-Hernández M, Páez-Hernández ME, Rodríguez JA, Galán-Vidal CA. Chemical studies of anthocyanins: a review. Food Chem 2009;113:859-71.
27. Sarkis JR, Jaeschke DP, Tessaro IC, Marczak LDF. Effects of ohmic and conventional heating on anthocyanin degradation during the processing of blueberry pulp. LWT-Food SciTechnol 2013;51:79-85.
28. Lu Y, Foo LY. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of polyphenols from apple pomace. Food Chem 2000;68:81-5.
29. Buchner N, Krumbein A, Rohn S, Kroh LW. Effect of thermal processing on the flavonol rutin and quercetin. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2006;20:3229-35.
30. Sadilova E, Stintzing FC, Carle R. Thermal degradation of acylated and nonacylated anthocyanins. J Food Sci 2006;71:504-12.
31. Shyamala BN, Naidu MM, Sulochanamma G, Srinivas P. Studies on the antioxidant activities of natural vanilla extract and its constituent compounds through in vitro models. J Agric Food Chem 2007;55:7738-43.
32. Hamauzu Y, Takedachi N, Miyasaka R, Makabe H. Heat treatment of Chinese quince polyphenols increases rat plasma levels of protocatechuic and vanillic acids. Food Chem 2010;118:757-63.
236 Views | 874 Downloads
How to Cite
Sivamaruthi, B. S., N. Pengkumsri, M. Saelee, P. Kesika, S. Sirilun, S. Peerajan, and C. Chaiyasut. “IMPACT OF PHYSICAL TREATMENTS ON STABILITY AND RADICAL SCAVENGING CAPACITY OF ANTHOCYANIDINS”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 8, no. 1, Nov. 2015, pp. 162-7,
Original Article(s)