A STUDY ON ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTI-AGING PROPERTIES OF FEW MEDICINAL PLANTS
Keywords:Antioxidants, Antiaging, 2, 2-diphenyl1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), FRAP, Lipofuscin, Syzygium cumini, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Tinospora cordifolia
Objective: The present study was undertaken to appraise the antioxidant and antiaging properties of some important medicinal plants like Syzygium cumini L. (Jamun, the Indian Blackberry), Tinospora cordifolia L. (Giloy) and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Methi).
Methods: The methanolic extracts of these plants were prepared, incubated with Pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells and total antioxidant potential of these plants was determined by 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay. Lipid peroxidation assay was also performed to compare the free radical generating potential of these plants. Lipofuscin estimation was done in methanolic extracts of these plants to check which extract can reduce the lipofuscin accumulation in cells which is an anti-aging parameter.
Results: The highest inhibition of DPPH radical and ferric reducing ability (FRAP assay) was observed in methanolic extract of Syzygium cumini leaves followed by Trigonella foenum-graecum leaves and lowest inhibition was shown by Tinospora cordifolia leaf extracts. Lipid peroxidation assay done by determining the amount of Malondialdehyde(MDA) formed and highest levels of MDA was produced by Tinospora cordifolia leaf extracts followed by Trigonella foenum-graecum leaf extracts and lowest values were obtained were from Syzygium cumini leaf extracts. The anti-aging parameter which is a determination of lipofuscin pigments in PC-12 cells treated with methanolic extracts of different plants was also examined. Highest accumulation of lipofuscin pigment was observed in cells treated with Tinospora cordifolia leaf extracts followed by Trigonella foenum-graecum leaf extracts and lowest values were obtained were from Syzygium cumini leaf extracts.
Conclusion: The results of these findings revealed that the plants which have highest antioxidant potential could be a potent source of anti-aging drugs.
World health organization regional office for the western pacific. Research guidelines for evaluating the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines. Manila, World Health organization regional office for western pacific; 1993.
Agbor AG, Ngogang YJ. Toxicity of herbal preparations. Cam J Ethanobot 2005;1:23-8.
Kahkonen MP, Hopia AI, Vuorela HJ, Rauha JP, Pihlaja K, et al. Antioxidant activity of plant extracts containing phenolic compounds. J Agric Food Chem 1999;47:3954-62.
Proestos C, Boziaris IS, Nychas GJE, Komaitis M. Analysis of flavonoids and phenolic acids in greek aromatic plants: investigation of their antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity. Food Chem 2006;95:664-7.
Rimbach G, Fuchs J, Packer L. Application of nutrigenomics tools to analyse role of oxidants and antioxidants in gene expression. In: Kahkonen MP, Fuchs J, Packer L. eds. Nutrigenomics, Taylor and Francis Boca Raton Publishers, FL, USA; 2005. p. 1-12.
Harman D. The biologic clock: the mitochondria? J Am Geriatr Soc 1972;20:145â€“7.
Sastre J, Lluch-Bernal M, Quirce S. A double-blind, placebo-controlled oral challenge study by lyophilized larvae and antigen of the fish parasite, Anasakis simplex. Allergy 2000;55:560-4.
Harman D. The free radical theory of aging. Antioxid Redox Signaling 2003;5:557â€“61.
Taylor RSL, Edel F, Manandhar NP, Towers GHN. Antimicrobial activity of southern Nepalese medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 1996;45:67-70.
Nupur S Srivastava, Deepti Dua. Neuroprotective effect of potent antioxidant lycopene in stress-induced rat PC-12 cells. Int J Pharm Biol Sci 2015;6:(B)740â€“51.
Igarashi M, Miyazawa T. The growth inhibitory effect of conjugated linoleic acid on a human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, is induced by a change in fatty acid metabolism, but not the facilitation of lipid peroxidation in the cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 2001;1530:162-71.
Liyana-Pathiranan CM, Shahidi F. Antioxidant activity of commercial soft and hard wheat (Triticum aestivum L) as affected by gastric pH conditions. J Agric Food Chem 2005;53:2433-40.
Benzie IFF, Strain JJ. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of antioxidant power: the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem 1996;239:70-6.
Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K. Assay for lipid peroxidation in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Ann Biochem 1979;95:351â€“8.
H Esterbauer, RJ Schaur, H Zollner. Chemistry and biochemistry of 4-hydroxynonenal, malonaldehyde and related aldehydes. Free Radical Biol Med 1991;11:81â€“128.
Anisimov VN. Effects of exogenous melatoninâ€“A review. Toxicol Pathol 2003;31:589â€“603.
Avery NG, Kaiser JL, Sharman MJ. Effects of vitamin E supplementation on recovery from repeated bouts of resistance exercise. J Strength Conditioning Res 2003;17:801â€“9.
Aydogan S, Yerer MB, Goktas A. Melatonin, and nitric oxide. J Endocrinol Invest 2006;29:281â€“7.
Zima TS, Fialova L, Mestek O, Janebova M, Crkovska J, MalbohanI, Slipek S, et al. Oxidative stress, metabolism of ethanol and alcohol-related diseases. Am J Biomed Sci 2001;8:59-70.
Astley SB. Dietary antioxidants are past, present and future. Trends Food Sci Technol 2003;14:93-8.
Atoui AK, Mansouri A, Boskou G, Kefalas P. Tea and herbal infusions: their antioxidant activity and phenolic profile. Food Chem 2005;89:27-36.
Harman D. Aging: a theory based on free radical and radiation chemistry. J Gerontol 1957;2:298â€“300.
De La Fuente M. Effects of antioxidants on immune system aging. Eur J Clin Nutr 2002;56: S5â€“S8.
Finkel T, Holbrook NJ. Oxidants, oxidative stress and the biology of aging. Nature 2000;408:239â€“47.
Berger MM. Can oxidative damage be treated nutritionally? Clin Nutr 2005;24:172â€“83.
Walton NJ, Brown DE. Chemicals from plants: perspectives on secondary plant product. London: Imperial College press; 1999.