THE PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ORAL ACUTE TOXICITY STUDY OF STEM BARK OF SYZYGIUM CUMINI

  • Mergu Prasad Department of Anatomy, Mediciti Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad and PhD Scholar of Saveetha University, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
  • Satya Prasad Venugopal Department of Anatomy, MNR Medical College, Sangareddy
  • Veerachamy Alagarsamy MNR College of Pharmacy
  • Chivukula Sridevi 4Biological Testing Lab, M/s. Teena Biolabs Pvt. Ltd.

Abstract

Objective: The current subject field was carried out to evaluate phytochemical analysis and acute toxicity study of the stem bark of Syzygium cumini.

Methods: The ethanol extraction was made by the Soxhlet extraction method. Phytochemical screening was performed by applying standard methods. The oral administration of the drug in treating a group is done by using a curved ball-tipped intubation needle affixed to a 3 ml syringe and animal's observed from cage side observations. All the animals were anesthetized with ether anesthesia; blood was collected from orbital puncture and analysis was made by standard methods. Several organs were collected by dissecting abdominal, thoracic and cranial cavities and each weighed by using a sensitive electronic balance. Fixation was made with 10% buffered formalin and processed for histological embedding by Carleton's histological techniques. Statistical data analyzed by statistical software Sigma Plot 10.

Results: The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, carbohydrates, sterols and amino acids. The oral acute toxicity study showed no detectable clinical signs of toxicity and mortality during the study period of 14 d. There were no statistically significant alterations in body weights, organ weights, and hematological parameters compared to control group. The microscopic anatomy of the reproductive organs and liver showed normal architecture.

Conclusion: The outcome of the study showed that the LD50 of the drug was greater than 5000 mg/kg body weight. The phytochemicals present in stem bark of Syzygium cumini can be employed in the fabrication of innovative medication for several diseases.

 

Keywords: Toxicity study, Syzygium cumini, Stem bark, Phytochemicals

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Mergu Prasad, Department of Anatomy, Mediciti Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad and PhD Scholar of Saveetha University, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
ANATOMY, PROFESSOR

References

1. Modi DC, Patel JK, Shah BN, Nayak BS. Pharmacognostic studies of the seed of Syzygium cumini Linn. Pharma Sci Monit 2010;1:20-6.
2. WHO. Traditional medicine strategy 2002-2005. Geneva; 2002.
3. Mamta Saxena, Jyoti Saxena, Rajeev Nema, Dharmendra Singh, Abhishek Gupta. Phytochemistry of medicinal plants. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2013;1:168-82.
4. Rika Hartati, Asep Gana Suganda, Irda Fidrianny, Theresia Monica Ginting. Total flavonoid content and antimicrobial properties of four species of Zingiberaceae. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:142-4.
5. Catherine Clinton ND. Plant tannins: a novel approach to the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Natl Med J 2009;1:1-4.
6. Bruce J, Grattan Jr. Plant sterols as anticancer nutrients: evidence for their role in breast cancer. Nutrients 2013;5:359-87.
7. Ugbabe GE, Ezeunala MN, Edmond IN, Apev J, Salawu OA. Preliminary phytochemical, antimicrobial and acute toxicity studies of the stem bark and the leaves of a cultivated Syzygium cumini Linn. (Family: Myrtaceae) in Nigeria. Afr J Biotechnol 2010;9:6943-7.
8. Glauco Morales, Adrian Paredes, Alberto Olivares, Jaime Bravo. Acute oral toxicity and anti-inflammatory activity of hydroalcoholic extract from Lampaya medicinalis Phil in rats. Biol Res 2014;47:6.
9. Narviya MB, Parmar P, Shukla VJ, Ravishankar B. Toxicological study of Balakaturbhandrika Churna. J Ayurveda Integrative Med 2011;2:79-84.
10. Rashid Ali, Raisuddin Ali, Abhinav Jaimini, Dhruv Kumar Nishad, Gaurav Mittal, Om Prakash Chaurasia, et al. Acute and subacute toxicity and efficacy studies of Hippophae rhamnoides based herbal antioxidant supplement. Indian J Pharmacol 2012;44:504–8.
11. Kuncha Jayachandra, Ayyachamy Maheswaran, mariappan Murali. In-vitro evaluation of nitric oxide scavenging activity of a methanolic and aqueous extract of Syzygium cumini Linn. bark (Mytraceae). Int J Pharm Sci Res 2012;3:615-9.
12. Jadhav VM, Kamble SS, Kadam VJ. Herbal medicines: syzygium cumini: a review. J Pharm Res 2009;2:1212-9.
13. Saravanan G, Pari L. Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effect of Syzygium cumini bark in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Pharmacol Toxicol 2008;3:1-10.
14. Salim KP, Padmaa M Paarakh. A phytopharmacological review of Syzygium cumini (L.) skeels. Pharmacologyonline 2009;2:101-22.
15. Muniappan Ayyanar, Pandurangan Subash-Babu. Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels A review of its phytochemical constituents and traditional uses. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012;2:240-6.
16. Abhishek Kumar Sah, Vinod K Verma. Syzygium cumini: an overview. J Chem Pharm Res 2011;3:108-13.
17. Kuncha Jayachandra, Sharmila Devi V. In-vitro antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Syzygium cumini Linn. bark. Asian J Biomed Pharm Sci 2012;2:45-9.
18. Shweta Sharma, Mehta BK, Darshna Mehta, Hemant Nagar, Aditya Mishra. A review on the pharmacological activity of Syzygium cumini extracts using different solvent and their effective doses. Int Res J Pharm 2012;3:54-8.
19. Prashant Tiwari, Bimlesh Kumar, Mandeep Kaur, Gurpreet Kaur, Harleen Kaur. Phytochemical screening and extraction: A review. Int Pharm Sci 2011;1:98-106.
20. Jitendra P Singh, Singh AK, Anju Bajpai, Iffat Zareen Ahmad. Characterization of different Syzygium cumini Skeels accessions based on physicochemical attributes and phytochemical investigations. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:158-64.
21. Satheesh Kumar Bhandary, Suchetha Kumari N, Vadisha S Bhat, Sharmila KP, Mahesh Prasad Bekal. Preliminary phytochemical screening of various extracts of Punica Granatum Peel, whole fruit and seeds. Nitte University J Health Sci 2012;2:34-8.
22. Palanisamy P, Jayakar B, Kumuthavalli MV, Yoganath Kumar, Srinath KR. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation of whole plant extract of Dipteracanthus prostratus nees. Int Res J Pharm 2012;3:150-3.
23. Alagesaboopathi C, Sivakumar R. Phytochemical screening studies on the leaves and stem of Andrographis neesiana Wight-An endemic medicinal plant from India. World Appl Sci J 2011;12:307-11.
24. OECD/OCDE, OECD guideline for testing of chemicals, acute oral toxicity-Acute toxicity class method; 2001. p. 423.
25. HM Carleton's. Histological technique. 5th Ed. USA: Oxford University Press; 1980.
26. Shashank Kumar, Abhay K Pandey. Chemistry and biological activities of flavonoids: an overview. Sci World J 2013. doi: 10.1155/2013/162750. [Article in Press]
27. Chung KT, Wong TY, Wei CI, Huang YW, Lin Y. Tannins and human health: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 1998;38:421-64.
28. Yele SU, Veeranjaneyulu A. Toxicological assessments of aqueous extract of Eugenia jambolana stem bark. Pharm Biol 2010;48:849-54.
Statistics
462 Views | 477 Downloads
How to Cite
Prasad, M., S. P. Venugopal, V. Alagarsamy, and C. Sridevi. “THE PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ORAL ACUTE TOXICITY STUDY OF STEM BARK OF SYZYGIUM CUMINI”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 8, no. 1, Nov. 2015, pp. 209-13, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ijpps/article/view/9516.
Section
Original Article(s)