A REVIEW ON COMPREHENSIVE OVERVIEW IN THE MANAGEMENT OF NEPHROTIC DISORDERS
The nephrotic disorder are the medical condition characterized by a cluster of indication that includes protein in the urine, low blood protein levels, high cholesterol levels, high triglyceride levels, and swelling of the limbs. Oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, psychological stress, diabetes, hypertension, and glomerulonephritis are known to be the most common causes of kidney failure. Treatment modalities which control these factors and improve lifestyle for survival to the patients are â€œAYUSHâ€ medication system, considerably accepted by health-care professional. In this Ayurvedic medications and Yoga therapies are really introduced for the management as well as regain of altered kidney function. From the ancient time, herbal medicine has been widely used and found the significant effects for relieving the sign and symptoms of nephrotic disorders, while Yoga plays a significant role for the management of non-communicable diseases. Regular yoga practice can help control sugar levels, blood pressure and reduce the risk of cardiac complications in patients with heart diseases as well as impaired kidney function. Thus, yoga has been promising a role in the primary and secondary management of chronic kidney disorder as an adjuvant along with necessary precautions to be taken while doing yoga. Now we compile every treatment medication system to relieve the symptoms and management of all complications in the patients with kidney disorders.Keywords: Nephrotic disorders, Pathogenesis of proteinuria, Albuminurea, Oedema, AYUSH medication system
2. Deegens JKJ, Schrier RW, Wetzels JFM. The nephrotic syndrome. In: Schrier RW. Ed. Diseases of the kidney. 9th edn. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia; 2012. p. 1997â€“2011.
3. Chugh SS, MacÃ© C, Clement LC, Del Nogal Avila M, Marshall CB. Angiopoietin-like 4 based therapeutics for proteinuria and kidney disease. Front Pharmacol 2014;5:23.
4. Zacchia M, Trepiccione F, Morelli F, Pani A, Capasso G. Nephrotic syndrome: new concepts in the pathophysiology of sodium retention. J Nephrol 2008;21:836-42.
5. Bakkali EL, Rodrigues PR, Kuik DJ, Ket JC, Van WJA. Nephrotic syndrome in The Netherlands: a population-based cohort study and a review of the literature. Pediatr Nephrol 2011;26:1241-6.
6. Pincus KJ, Hynicka LM. Prophylaxis of thromboembolic events in patients with nephrotic syndrome. Ann Pharmacother 2013;47:725-34.
7. Hamm LL, Batuman V. Edema in the nephrotic syndrome: a new aspect of an old enigma. J Am Soc Nephrol 2003;14:3288-9.
8. Kodner C. Nephrotic syndrome in adults: diagnosis and management. Am Fam Physician 2009;80:1129-34.
9. Saraga M, VukojeviÄ‡ K, KrÅ¾elj V, PuretiÄ‡ Z, BoÄina I, Durdov M, et al. Mechanism of cystogenesis in nephrotic kidneys: a histopathological study. BMC Nephrol 2014;15:3.
10. Appel GB. Glomerular disorders and nephrotic syndromes. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D. eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd edn. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007. p. 122.
11. Gibson KL, Hansrivijit P, Ferris ME. Emerging agents for the management of nephrotic syndrome: progress to date. Paediatr Drugs 2016;18:25-9.
12. Palmer SC, Nand K, Strippoli GF. Interventions for minimal change disease in adults with nephrotic syndrome. Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews 2008. Doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001537. [Article in Press]
13. Mahmoodi BK, Ten Kate MK, Waanders F, Veeger NJ, Brouwer JL, Vogt L, et al. High absolute risks and predictors of venous and arterial thromboembolic events in patients with nephrotic syndrome: results from a large retrospective cohort study. Circulation 2008;117:224-30.
14. Kong X, Yuan H, Fan J, Li Z, Wu T, Jiang L. Lipid-lowering agents for nephrotic syndrome. Database Systematic Reviews 2013. Doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005425. [Article in Press]
15. Mandel N. Crystal-membrane interaction in kidney stone disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 1994;5(5 Suppl 1): S37-45.
16. Karnath BM, Keddis MT. The nephrotic syndrome. Hospital Physician 2007;43:25-30.
17. Greka A. Human genetics of nephrotic syndrome and the quest for precision medicine. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2016;25:138-43.
18. Hull RP, Goldsmith DJ. Nephrotic syndrome in adults. Br Med J 2008;336:1185-9.
19. Antignac C. Genetic models: clues for understanding the pathogenesis of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. J Clin Invest 2002;109:447-9.
20. Duffy M, Jain S, Harrell N, Kothari N, Reddi AS. Albumin and furosemide combination for the management of edema in nephrotic syndrome: a review of clinical studies. Cells 2015;4:622-30.
21. Wu X, Wang G, Feng J. Syncope as an initial symptom for nephrotic syndrome: a case report. Int J Clin Exp Med 2015;8:16868-70.
22. Medjeral-Thomas N, Ziaj S, Condon M, Galliford J, Levy J, Cairns T, et al. Retrospective analysis of a novel regimen for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in nephrotic syndrome. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2014;9:478-83.
23. Hogan J, Radhakrishnan J. The treatment of minimal change disease in adults. J Am Soc Nephrol 2013;24:702-11.
24. McGrogan A, Franssen CF, de Vries CS. The incidence of primary glomerulonephritis worldwide: a systematic review of the literature. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2011;26:414-30.
25. Gipson DS, Troost JP, Lafayette RA, Hladunewich MA, Trachtman H, Gadegbeku CA, at al. Complete remission in the nephrotic syndrome study network. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2016;11:81-9.
26. Beins NT, Dell KM. Long-term outcomes in children with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome treated with calcineurin inhibitors. Frontiers Pediatrics 2015;3:104.
27. Hahn D, Hodson EM, Willis NS, Craig JC. Corticosteroid therapy for nephrotic syndrome in children. Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews 2015;3: CD001533. [Article in Press]
28. Chen Y, Schieppati A, Chen X, Cai G, Zamora J, Giuliano GA, et al. Immunosuppressive treatment for idiopathic membranous nephropathy in adults with nephrotic syndrome. Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews 2014. Doi:10.1002/ 14651858.CD004293. [Article in Press]
29. Ravani P, Bonanni A, Rossi R, Caridi G, Ghiggeri GM. Anti-CD20 antibodies for idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in children. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2015;160:1062-7.
30. Ponticelli C, Graziani G. Current and emerging treatments for idiopathic focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis in adults. Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2013;9:251-61.
31. Bomback AS, Canetta PA, Beck LH Jr, Ayalon R, Radhakrishnan J, Appel GB. Treatment of resistant glomerular diseases with adrenocorticotropic hormone gel: a prospective trial. Am J Nephrol 2012;36:58-67.
32. Andolino TP, Reid-Adam J. Nephrotic syndrome. Pediatr Rev 2015;36:117-25.
33. Tran TH, J Hughes G, Greenfeld C, Pham JT. Overview of current and alternative therapies for idiopathic membranous nephropathy. Pharmacotherapy 2015;35:396-411.
34. Kumar J, Gulati S, Sharma AP, Sharma RK, Gupta RK. The histopathological spectrum of childhood nephrotic syndrome in Indian children. Pediatr Nephrol 2003;18:657-60.
35. Gupta K, Iskandar SS, Daeihagh P, Ratliff HL, Bleyer AJ. Distribution of pathologic findings in individuals with nephrotic proteinuria according to serum albumin. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2008;23:1595-9.
36. Becker GJ, Perkovic V, Hewitson TD. Pharmacological intervention in renal fibrosis and vascular sclerosis. J Nephrol 2001;14:332-9.
37. Leung YY, Szeto CC, Tam LS, Lam CW, Li EK, Wong KC, et al. Urine protein-to-creatinine ratio in an untimed urine collection is a reliable measure of proteinuria in lupus nephritis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2007;46:649-52.
38. Kanwar YS, Liu ZZ, Kashihara N, Wallner EI. Current status of the structural and functional basis of glomerular filtration and proteinuria. Semin Nephrol 1991;11:390-413.
39. Abbate M, Zoja C, Remuzzi G. How does proteinuria cause progressive renal damage? J Am Soc Nephrol 2006;17:2974-84.
40. Joles JA, Koomans HA, Kortlandt W, Boer P, Dorhout Mees EJ. Hypoproteinemia and recovery from edema in dogs. Am J Physiol 1988;254:F887-94.
41. Schjoedt KJ, Rossing K, Juhl TR, Boomsma F, Tarnow L, Rossing P, et al. Beneficial impact of spironolactone on nephrotic range albuminuria in diabetic nephropathy. Kidney Int 2006;70:536-42.
42. Seigneur de S, Martin PY. Management of patients with nephrotic syndrome. Swiss Med Wkly 2009;139:416-22.
43. Smeets B, Dijkman HB, Te Loeke NA, van Son JP, Steenbergen EJ, Assmann KJ, et al. Podocyte changes upon induction of albuminuria in Thy-1.1 transgenic mice. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2003;18:2524-33.
44. Loscalzo J. Venous thrombosis in the nephrotic syndrome. New N Engl J Med 2013;368:956-8.
45. Rondon-Berrios H. New insights into the pathophysiology of oedema in nephrotic syndrome. Nefrologia 2011;31:148-54.
46. Steyl C, Van Zyl-Smit R. Mechanisms of oedema formation: the minor role of hypoalbuminemia. S Afr Med J 2009;99:57-9.
47. Singhal R, Brimble KS. Thromboembolic complications in the nephrotic syndrome: pathophysiology and clinical management. Thromb Res 2006;118:397-407.
48. Ibrahim HF, Peter MC, Charles RMH, Gordon MB. Arterial thrombosis in the nephrotic syndrome. Postgrad Med J 1994;70:905-9.
49. Kayali F, Najjar R, Aswad F, Matta F, Stein PD. Venous thromboembolism in patients hospitalized with nephrotic syndrome. Am J Med 2008;121:226-30.
50. Citak A, Emre S, Sairin A, Bilge I, Nayir A. Hemostatic problems and thromboembolic complications in nephrotic children. Pediatric Nephrol 2000;14:138-42.
51. Bryce AK, Rose A, William ES. Epidemiology and pathophysiology of nephrotic syndromeâ€“associated thromboembolic disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2012;7:513-20.
52. Janda SP. Bilateral renal vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism secondary to membranous glomerulonephritis treated with percutaneous catheter thrombectomy and localized thrombolytic therapy. Indian J Nephrol 2010;20:152-5.
53. Derakhshan A, Derakhshan D, Fallahzadeh MH, Basiratnia M. Recurrence of nephrotic syndrome following kidney transplantation in a child with congenital nephrotic syndrome. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2016;27:150-2.
54. Forneas MA. Nephrotic syndrome and edema formation: a new understanding. Biomed Sci 2010;351:3.
55. Regolisti G, Maggiore U, Cademartiri C, Cabassi A, Caiazza A, Tedeschi S, et al. Cerebral blood flow decreases during intermittent hemodialysis in patients with acute kidney injury, but not in patients with the end-stage renal disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2013;28:79-85.
56. Chen M, Li H, Li XY, Lu FM, Ni ZH, Xu FF, et al. Tacrolimus combined with corticosteroids in the treatment of nephrotic idiopathic membranous nephropathy: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Am J Med Sci 2010;339:233-8.
57. Nasser Mel T, Shawki S, El Shahawy Y, Sany D. Assessment of cognitive dysfunction in kidney disease. Saudi J Kidney Diseases Transplantation 2012;23:1208-14.
58. Feng L, Yap KB, Yeoh LY, Ng TP. Kidney function and a cognitive and functional decline in elderly adults: findings from the Singapore longitudinal aging study. J Am Geriatr Soc 2012;60:1208-14.
59. Meryl Waldman, Howard A. Austin. Treatment of idiopathic membranous nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol 2012;23:1617-30.
60. Kerlin BA, Ayoob R, Smoyer WE. Epidemiology and pathophysiology of the nephrotic syndrome associated thromboembolic disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2012;7:513-20.
61. Khaled Abdel-Kader, Paul Palevsky. Acute kidney injury in the elderly. Clinics Geriatric Medicine 2009;25:331-8.
62. Cibulka R, Racek J. Metabolic disorders in patients with chronic kidney failure. Physiol Res 2007;56:697-705.
63. Bugnicourt JM, Godefroy O, Chillon JM, Choukroun G, Massy ZA. Cognitive disorders and dementia in CKD: the neglected kidney-brain axis. J Am Soc Nephrol 2013;24:353-63.
64. Khakurel S, Agrawal RK, Hada R. Pattern of glomerular disease in Nepal: A single-center experience. Saudi J Kidney Diseases Transplantation 2015;26:833-8.
65. Department of Ayush; 2013. Available from: http://indianmedicine.nic.in. [Last accessed on 18 Feb 2016].
66. Planning Commission. Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012â€“2017): Social Sectors. Vol. III. Planning Commission, New Delhi; 2013. p. 8.
67. Cameron JS, Hicks J. The origins and development of the concept of a nephrotic syndrome. Am J Nephrol 2002;22:240-7.
68. Grases F, Prieto RM, Costa-BauzÃ¡ A. In vitro models for studying renal stone formation: a clear alternative. Altern Lab Anim 1998;26:481-503.
69. Wada T, Nangaku M. Circulating permeability factors in primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Nihon Jinzo Gakkaishi 2014;56:478-85.
70. Takeda T, McQuistan T, Orlando RA, Farquhar MG. Loss of glomerular foot processes is associated with uncoupling of podocalyxin from the actin cytoskeleton. J Clin Invest 2001;108:289-301.
71. Shih NY, Li J, Karpitskii V, Nguyen A, Dustin ML, Kanagawa O, et al. Congenital nephrotic syndrome in mice lacking CD2-associated protein. Science 1999;286:312-5.
72. Streeter CC, Gerbarg PL, Saper RB, Ciraulo DA, Brown RP. Effects of yoga on the autonomic nervous system, gamma-aminobutyric-acid, and allostasis in epilepsy, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Med Hypotheses 2012;78:571-9.
73. Berger B, Owen D. Yoga and stress reduction and mood enhancement in four exercise modes: swimming, body conditioning, hatha yoga and fencing. Res Quarterly Exercise Sport 1988;59:148-59.
74. Innes KE, Bourguignon C, Taylor AG. Risk indices associated with the insulin resistance syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and possible protection with yoga: a systematic review. J Am Board Family Med 2005;18:491-519.
75. Saito J, Matsuzawa Y, Ito H, Omura M, Ito Y, Yoshimura K, et al. The alkalizer citrate reduces serum uric acid levels and improves renal function in hyperuricemic patients treated with the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol. Endocr Res 2010;35:145â€“54.
76. Pallav Sengupta. Health impacts of yoga and pranayama: a state-of-the-art review. Int J Prev Med 2012;3:444â€“58.
77. Huang X, JimÃ©nez-MoleÃ³n JJ, Lindholm B, Cederholm T, Ã„rnlÃ¶v J, RisÃ©rus U, et al. Mediterranean diet, kidney function, and mortality in men with CKD. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2013;8:1548â€“55.
78. Nandini Vallath. Perspectives on Yoga inputs in the management of chronic pain. Indian J Palliative Care 2010;16:1â€“7.
79. McCaffrey R, Ruknui P, Hatthakit U, Kasetsomboon P. The effects of yoga on hypertensive persons in Thailand. Holistic Nursing Practice 2005;19:173â€“80.
80. Schell FJ, Allolio B, Schonecke OW. Physiological and psychological effects of Hatha-Yoga exercise in healthy women. Int J Psychosomatics 1994;41:46â€“52.
81. Ardha Matsyendrasana Yoga (Half Lord of the Fishes Pose) Benefits and precautions. Uploaded by Yog Sadhana; 2014. Available from: www.astrolika.com/yoga/ardha-matsyendrasana.html. [Last accessed on 18 Feb 2016.
82. Kashinath GM, Hemant B, Praerna C, Nagarathna R, Nagendra HR. The role of yoga in chronic kidney disease: a hypothetical review. J Nephrol Ther 2014;4:1â€“4.
83. Ross A, Thomas S. The health benefits of yoga and exercise: a review of comparison studies. J Alternative Complementary Med 2009;16:3â€“12.
84. Smith C, Hancock H, Blake-Mortimer J, Eckert K. A randomized comparative trial of yoga and relaxation to reduce stress and anxiety. Complement Ther Med 2007;15:77â€“83.
85. Woodyard C. Exploring the therapeutic effects of yoga and its ability to increase the quality of life. Int J Yoga 2011;4:49â€“54.
86. Siddiqui MSA, Usmanghani K. Acute kidney injury: treatment with unani medicine-case report. Chin Med 2014;5:118â€“22.
87. Afzal M, Khan NA, Ghufran A. Diuretic and nephroprotective effect of Jawarish Zarooni Sada-a polyherbal Unani formulation. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;91:219â€“23.
88. Jabin F. A guiding tool in unani tibb for maintenance and preservation of health: a review study. Afr J Traditional Complementary Alternative Med 2011;8:140-3.
89. Al Muqarrabun LMR, Ahmat SN, Ruzaina SA. A review of the medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of the genus Sapium. J Ethnopharmacol 2014;155:9-20.
90. Antony SJ, Martin P. Nephroprotective effect of ethanolic extract of sirupeelai in mercuric chloride induced renal damage in wistar albino rats. Int J Chem Eng Appl 2012;3:269â€“73.
91. Yang HC, Zuo Y, Fogo AB. Models of chronic kidney disease. Drug Discovery Today Models 2010;7:13â€“9.
92. Chen YM, Liapis H. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis: molecular genetics and targeted therapies. BMC Nephrol 2015;16:101.
93. Nowack R, Flores-Suarez F, Birck R, Schmitt W, Benck U. Herbal treatments of glomerulonephritis and chronic renal failure: review and recommendations for research. J Pharmacogn Phytother 2011;3:124-36.
94. A Peng, Y Gu, SY Lin. Herbal treatment for renal diseases. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2005;34:44-51.
95. Srivastava S, Singh P, Mishra G, Jha KK. Costusspeciosus (Keukand): a review. Pharm Sinica 2011;2:118â€“28.
96. Gupta PC, Sharma N, Rao VH. A review on ethnobotany, phyto-chemistry, and pharmacology of Fumariaindica (Fumitory). Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012;2:665â€“9.
97. Zaman R, Basar SN. A review article of beekhe kasni (Cichoriumintybus) its traditional uses and pharmacological actions. Res J Pharm Sci 2013;2:1â€“4.
98. Sasikumar S, Maleeka SF, Durgadevi P. In vitro radical scavenging assay and in vivo nephroprotective effect of Boerhaavia diffuse against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in male Wistar albino rats. A J Sci Technol 2012;2:10â€“7.
99. Madhav NV, Maurya H, Gandhi S. Glomerulonephritis and its therapeutic approach: a comprehensive evaluation. Elixir Pharm 2013;57:14206â€“15.
100. Sarwan Kumar G, Lalitha V, Sengottuvelu S, Sharif SH, Sivakumar T. Nephroprotective activity of Vitex Negundo Linn bark against chemical-induced toxicity in experimenal rats. Int J Adv Pharm Sci 2011;2:462â€“70.
101. Ballabh B, Chaurasia OP, Ahmed Z, Singh SG. Traditional medicinal plants of cold desert Ladakh-used against kidney and urinary disorders. J Ethnopharmacol 2008;18:331â€“9.
102. Wojcikowski K, Wohlmuth H, Johnson DW, Gobe G. Effect of astragalus membranaceous and Angelica sinensis combined with Enalapril in rats with obstructive uropathy. Phytother Res 2010;24:875â€“84.
103. Gordon L, McGrowder DA, Pena YT, Cabrera E, Lawrence-Wright MB. Effect of yoga exercise therapy on oxidative stress indicators with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis. Int J Yoga 2013;6:31â€“8.
104. Yurtkuran M, Alp A, Yurtkuran M, Dilek K. A modified yoga based exercise program in hemodialysis patients: a randomized controlled study. Complement Ther Med 2007;15:164â€“71.
105. Pan SY, Litscher G, Gao SH, Zhou SF, Yu ZL, Chen HQ, et al. Historical perspective of traditional indigenous medical practices: the current renaissance and conservation of herbal resources. J Evidence-Based Complementary Altern Med 2014. Doi:10.1155/2014/525340. [Article in Press].