J Crit Rev, Vol 4, Issue 1, 12-16 Review Article


HERBAL MONOTHERAPY OF SIDHASARASAMHITA

K. NISHTESWAR1, VIDHYA UNNIKRISHNAN2

Department of Dravyaguna, IPGT and RA, Jamnagar
Email: drvidya.unni@gmail.com

Received: 12 Feb 2016 Revised and Accepted: 31 Mar 2016


ABSTRACT

Sidhasarasamhita is one of the important texts of Indian traditional medical literature. The exact period of the work is unknown, but according to the available evidence the work may be placed in the 8th century AD. Ravigupta’s distinctive contribution to Ayurvedic literature seems to have been the arrangement of the traditional knowledge into 31 chapters, each dealing with a different subject. The author of sidhasarasamhita included many single and simple recipes useful in particular disease conditions. In total 151 single drug recipes are included in Sidhasarasamhita. After a thorough analysis of the Charakasamhita, Susruthasamhita and works of Vaghbata 16 recipes were noted, which may be considered as the contributions of Ravigupta to the Ayurvedic materia medica. It appears that medieval ayurvedic compendia have religiously followed Sidhasarasamhita in formulating various therapeutic recipes.

Keywords: Ravigupta, Sidhasarasamhita, Single drug recipes


INTRODUCTION

Ayurvedic knowledge has been comprehensively documented in two samhitas namely Charakasamhita and Susrutasamhita. Later works like Ashtangahridaya, Vrindamadhava, Chakradutta, etc have utilized this source material and made succinct works which are more helpful to the general practitioners of Ayurveda. The authors of these works compiled the relevant matter essential and suitable to their contemporary needs. They designed safe and effective formulations in simplified and systematic manner. Sidhasarasamhita is one such work of the medieval period in which ayurvedic therapeutic information is presented in brevity to help the mediocre physician.

Sidhasarasamhita was written by Ravigupta, son of Durgagupta who is considered Baudha since he paid benedictions to Budha in the beginning of his book. Nighantu part is appended in this samhita which is also referred as Sarottaranighantu [1]. The author has described that the subject content was dealt in 31 chapters with 1300 slokas. Acharya priyavrat sharma in his book ‘Ayurved ka vaijnanik itihas’ quoted Sidhasaranighantu as medieval work without mentioning its time of completion [2]. But in his work ‘Introduction to Dravyaguna, he mentioned that Vrinda in his Sidhayoga (900AD) borrowed several verses from sidhasarasamhita and is often quoted by Candrata (early 10th century A. D). As it was quoted by Chandrata (10th AD) and Chakrapanidatta (11th AD), it can be placed before 10th AD [3].

METHODS

Sidhasarasamhita and other compendia were thoroughly reviewed to compile the single drug recipes.

Table 1: Single drug recipes of Sidhasarasamhita

S. No. Drug Anupana Indication Mode of administration Sloka
1. Vilwapesi Paya Jwara with parikartika (jwara with scissoring pain) Oral 5/79
2.. Amandakamoolam Paya Jwara with parikartika Oral 5/79
3. Vrisha sarpi Jwara,Kshaya,Svasa, Kasa,Pandu, Asrapittanut Oral 5/85
4. Pippalikalka Ksheera Vishamajwara (Intermittent fever) Oral 5/108
5. Pippalivardhamanaprayoga Vishamajwara Oral 5/108
6. Ghritotbhrishta dhatrichoorna Amla Tushambu Dahanasana (relieves burning sensation) Lepa(E/A) 5/121
7. Badaridalotbhava phena Dahanasana Lepa(E/A) 5/121
8. Mustakvatha Makshika Pakvatisara (chronic diahrroea) Oral 6/24
9. Pippalikalka Paya Nirvahika (3days) (dysentery) Oral 6/53
10. Marichakalka Paya Nirvahika (3days) Oral 6/53
11. Akhuparnidalapishta poopika Souveeraka Krimi (worms) Oral 6/77
12. Vidanga choorna Kshoudra Krimi Oral 6/78
13. Paribhadraka patra rasa Madhu Krimi Oral 6/78
14. Vasakvatha Sita,Madhu Raktapitta (Bleeding disorders) Oral 7/15
15. Vasarasa Sita,Madhu Raktapitta Oral 7/15
16. Draksha sidhapaya Raktapitta Oral 7/22
17. Balasidhapaya Raktapitta Oral 7/22
18. Nagabalasidhapaya Raktapitta Oral 7/22
19. Swadamshtrasidhapaya Raktapitta Oral 7/22
20. Satavarisidhapaya Raktapitta Oral 7/22
21. Sankaha kalka Nasagataraktapitta Nasya 7/27
22. Gairika kalka Nasagataraktapitta Nasya 7/27
23. Dhataki kalka Nasagataraktapitta Nasya 7/27
24. Madhukakalka Nasagataraktapitta Nasya 7/27
25. Nariksheera Nasagataraktapitta Nasya 7/27
26. Dadimapushparasa Nasagataraktapitta Nasya 7/28
27. Durva swarasa Nasagataraktapitta Nasya 7/28
28. Amrasthirasa Nasagataraktapitta Nasya 7/28
29. Palandurasa Nasagataraktapitta Nasya 7/28
30. Paya Sita, Madhu Asrigdaram Oral 7/30
31. Suvarnagairika Madhu, tandulajala Pradara (Excessive vaginal discharge) Oral 7/31
32. Jambuparna Madhu, tandulajala Pradara Oral 7/31
33. Utpalakanda Madhu, tandulajala Pradara Oral 7/31
34. Anantakalka Prasanna Pradara Oral 7/32
35. Phalinikalka Prasanna Pradara Oral 7/32
36. Chandanakalka Prasanna Pradara Oral 7/32
37. Nagakesarakalka Prasanna Pradara Oral 7/32
38. Mudgaparni vipakva taila Pradara Pichu(E/A) 7/35
39. Samoolapatranirgundirasa pakva ghrita Ksheenita due to Yakshma Oral 8/19
40. Yashtikalkasidha tilataila Yakshma,hritvatamaya, Pandu, Urdhajatrugadaroga, unmade, raktapitta, visarpa Pana,Nasya 8/25
41. Suktikshara Paya Plihodara(Disorders of spleen/ascites associated with spleenomegaly) Oral 10/24
42. Pippali Paya Plihodara Oral 10/24
43. Erandataila Ksheera Plihodara Oral 10/27
44. Erandataila Gomutra Udara (Ascites) Oral 10/27
45. Jyotishkataila with hingu or svarjikashara Paya Udara Oral 10/27
46. Sringiverambu Paya Udara Oral 10/34
47. Guduchiswarasa Madhu Sarvamehajith (urinary disorders including diabetes) Oral 11/14
48. Patolaghrita Pittarakta kushta (skin diseases) Oral 12/15
49. Darvighrita Pittarakta kushta Oral 12/15
50. Khadiraghrita Pittarakta kushta Oral 12/15
51. Nimbaghrita Pittarakta kushta Oral 12/15
52. Kunati Sikhipitta Svitra (Leucoderma) Lepa 12/27
53. Balakabhasma Svitra Lepa 12/27
54. Gajadarpa Svitra Lepa 12/27
55. Malatikashara Svitra Lepa 12/27
56. Guggulu Gomutra or ushnajala Tvakdosha,vrana,sopha Oral 12/32
57. Bakuchi Ushnajala+ksheerabhojana sevana Kushta Oral 12/34
58. Indrayavachurna Ghrita Tvakdosha Oral 12/40
59. Khadirajala Sarvatvakdoshanasana Pralepa,udvartana,snana, pana, bhojana 12/44
60. Abhaya Guda Arsa (Haemorrhoids) Oral 13/15
61. Gomutradhyushita abhaya Arsa Oral 13/15
62. Chitrakakta ghata sanjata takra/dadhi Arsa Oral 13/17
63. Bharngi ghata sanjata takra/dadhi Arsa Oral 13/17
64. Asphota ghata sanjata takra/dadhi Arsa Oral 13/17
65. Guduchi ghata sanjata takra/dadhi Arsa Oral 13/17
66. Asitatila(Prakunja pramana) Seeta jala Arsa Oral 13/20
67. Kutajaphanita Ajakshira Raktarsa Oral 13/35
68. Mayurakakalkam Tandulambu Raktarsa Oral 13/35
69. Guduchi Madhu Kamala (Jaundice) Oral 14/14
70. Darvi Madhu Kamala Oral
71. Nimba Madhu Kamala Oral
72. Dronapushpirasa Kamala Anjana 14/20
73. Karkotamoola Kamala Nasyam 14/21
74. Jaliniphala Kamala Ghranana 14/21
75. Madhukam Madhu Hikka (Hiccup) Nasya 15/11
76. Pippali Sarkara Hikka Nasya 15/11
77. Nagara Guda Hikka Nasya 15/11
78. Abhaya Madhu Chardi (Vomiting) Oral 17/6
79. Sreephalakashaya Madhu Chardi Oral 17/10
80. Guduchikashaya Madhu Chardi Oral 17/10
81. Murva Tandulambu Chardi Oral 17/10
82. Kusumbha Kshoudra, Tandulambu Mutrakrichra (Dysuria) Oral 18/8
83. Silajit Kshoudra, Tandulambu Mutrakrichra Oral 18/8
84. Asmabhit Kshoudra, Tandulambu Mutrakrichra Oral 18/8
85. Pippali Kshoudra, Tandulambu Mutrakrichra Oral 18/8
86. Truti Kshoudra, Tandulambu Mutrakrichra Oral 18/8
87. Yavakshara Sarkara Mutrakrichra Oral 18/10
88. Kapotavankamoola Sura Asmari (Calculi) Oral 18/11-12
89. Sigrumoolotha kwatha Asmari Oral 18/11-12
90. Varunamoolakwatha Varunamoolakalka Sarkara,Asmari Oral
91. Erandatailam Ksheera Vridhi Oral 18/29
92. Dhatrirasa Sarkara Pittasoola Oral 19/13
93. Vidarirasa Sarkara Pittasoola Oral 19/13
94. Trayantirasa Sarkara Pittasoola Oral 19/13
95. Gostanirasa Sarkara Pittasoola Oral 19/13
96. Dhatrichurna Makshikam Pittasoola Oral 19/14
97. Lajatarpanam Sarkara,makshika Pittasoola Oral 19/14
98. Balakalakakwatha sidha tailam Vatavyadhi (diseases due to deranged vata) 21/6
99. Sairiyakalkakwathasidha tailam Vatavyadhi 21/6
100. Kanika Ajapaya,Ghrita Vatarakta Lepa 21/29
101. Satahva Ksheera Vatarakta Lepa 21/30
102. Erandabeeja Ksheera Vatarakta Lepa 21/30
103. Gudaharitaki Vatarakta Oral 21/33
104. Guduchikwatha Vatarakta Oral 21/33
105. Pippalivardhamana Vatarakta Oral 21/33
106. Mudgayoosha Sita Pittajamadatyaya Oral 22/9
107. Sushkamoolakayoosha Kaphajamadatyaya Oral 22/12
108. Yashti(pishtasidha Ghrita, paya,yava Vatikavisarpa Lepa 23/9
109. Guggulu Gomutra Sopha Oral 24/10
110. Pippali Paya Sopha Oral 24/10
111. Abhaya Guda Sopha Oral 24/10
112. Sunthi Guda Sopha Oral 24/10
113. Gudardraka (ksheera yoosha rasasi) Sopha,sosha,unmada,udara,gulma,arsa,swasa Oral 24/11
114. Sakhotakatvaksidhataila Gandamala(Lymphadenitis) Navana 24/20
115. Nimba sidhataila Gandamala Navana 24/20
116. Asvamarasidhataila Gandamala Navana 24/20
117. Nirgundisadhitataila Gandamala Navana 24/20
118. Yavakalka Ghrita Vranaropana Lepa 25/9
119. Erandasritaajaksheeram Netrasoola Aschyotana 26/10
120. Darvikwatha Madhu Sarvaabhishyanda Aschyotana 26/17
121. Vastrabadhagosakritsvinna vanyakulatha Akshikopaghna Lepana at night 26/19
122. Sankha Kshoudra Arjuna Anjana 26/30
123. Kataka Saindhava Arjuna Anjana 26/19
124. Samudraphena Sita Arjuna Anjana 26/30
125. Chagamootrabhavita devadaru Pillaroga Anjana 26/32
126. Jatipatrarasa Pootikarna Karnapoorana 26/62
127. Krishnajeerakachurna Pratisyaya Ghranana 26/66
128. Brhatirasa Madhu Indralupta Lepa 26/105
129. Gunjamoolaphala Indralupta Lepa 26/105
130. Bhallatakarasa Indralupta Lepa 26/105
131. Chagamootrabhavita Vandhyakarkotajamoola Kanchika Vishopahatachetas Nasya 27/16
132. Tiktatumbibeeja Gopitta Vishahara Oral 27/20
133. Sahacharamoola Kshoudra, tandulambu Akhuvisha Oral 27/39
134. Tilakamanjari Ksheera Akhuvisha Oral 27/39
135. Varshardhamushita loharavidhadhatri Madhu,ghrita Rasayana Oral 28/2
136. Masasthita sarpimadhukshita kasmari Payaannaupayogi Rasayana Oral 28/11
137. Varahimoolachurna(Shatam) Madhu, kheera (ksheerajyannabhuk) Rasayana Oral 28/12
138. Varahimoola churna shruta ksheera (for 1 mo) Ghrita, Madhu Rasayana Oral 28/13
139. Punarnavamoola (half pala)[15 d/1 mo/1 y] Ksheera Rasayana Oral 28/14
140. Ashwagandha (15 d) Taila/Ghrita/ksheera/Ushnodaka (Hitashana) Rasayana Oral 28/16
141. Yashti (1 karsha) Madhu,ghrita and ksheera Vajeekarana Oral 28/18
142. Masha (1 pala) Vajeekarana Oral 28/18
143. Vidarikanda swarasa bhavita vidarikanda churna Madhu, Ghrita Vajeekarana Oral 28/20
144. Lakshmana (4 Bindu) Ksheera Putrada Nasya (left nostril) 29/10
145. Vatashunga (4 Bindu) Ksheera Putrada Nasya (left nostril) 29/10
146. Beejapurakabeeja churna Ghrita Garbhada Oral 29/11
147. Nagakesara churna Ghrita Garbhada Oral 29/11
148. Parushakamoola Moodhagarbha Yoni & Nabhi lepa 29/26
149. Langalimoola Moodhagarbha Yoni & Nabhi lepa 29/26
150. Vasamoola Moodhagarbha Yoni & Nabhi lepa 29/26
151. Yavakshara Ghrita/Ushnodaka Makkallashoola Oral 29/27

The Ashtangas of ayurveda are mentioned in a concise form in 1300 slokas in anushtupp chandas in Sidhasarasamhita. The basic principles of ayurveda are described in brief in the first two chapters. In the second chapter Dravyaganas are described basing on ayurvedic classics. Salasaradi gana referred by Sushruta was described as saladigana. Arishtalakshanas are described in the third chapter and the author lucidly described that ayupareeksha should be done using arishtalakshanas. Annapanavidhi is given in the fourth chapter, different aharakalpanas along with the use and indication of anupana (gunadosha) are mentioned in it. Later chapters (5-22) are allocated to kayachikitsa and a concised description of etiological factors is also given. Salya chikitsa prayoga is mentioned in the treatment of vrana, gandamala and asmari. Salakyatantra, agadatantra, rasayana vajikarana, balachikitsa along with bhootavidya and panchakarma are mentioned in the remaining chapters.

In total 151 single drug recipes were found after a thorough review of sidhasarasamhita. Maximum numbers of single drug recipes were found in Raktapitta adhyaya. The more frequently used dosage form is kalka. The author has utilized the information available in the Brhatrayi in designing the recipes.

Table 2: Single drug recipes of Sidhasarasamhita mentioned in other Compendia

S. No Recipe Botanical name of the drug used Reference in other compendia
1. Mudgaparnivipakva taila pichu in Pradararoga Phaseolus trilobus Ait. Vangasena. Striroga,[4]
2. Samoolapatranirgundirasa pakva ghrita in rajayakshma Vitex negundo Linn Chakradutta 10/82, [5]
3. Dhatrichurna with makshika in pittasoola Emblica officinalisGaertn. Vrindamadhava 26.25-26,[6]
4. Sakhotakatvaksidhataila in Gandamala Streblus asper Lour. Vrindamadhava 41.51
5. Chagamutrabhavita Vandhyakarkotaki mula nasya in Vishopahata cheats Momordica dioica Roxb. ex Willd

Vrindamadhava 68/16[7]

Gadanigraha 7.3.26,

6. Jatipatrarasa karnapoorana in putikarna Jasminum grandiflorum Linn Vrindamadhava59.41, Gadanigraha 3.2.63, Vangasena karnaroga 90.
7. Karkotamula nasya in kamala Momordica dioica Roxb. ex Willd Vrindamadhava 8.13; Gadanigraha 2.7.52 [8]
8. Brihatirasa in Indralupta Solanum indicum

Vrindamadhava 57.76

Gadanigraha 3.1.78

9. Nagakesarakalka with prasanna in Pradara Mesua ferrea Linn Vangasena striroga.34
10. Nagakesarachurna with ghrita as garbhada Mesua ferrea Linn

Gadanigraha 6.5.21

Rajamarthanda 31.11

11. Bijapoorakabija churna with ghrita as garbhada Citrus medica Linn Yogaratnakara strirogachikisa, [9]
12. Parooshkamoola yoni lepa in moodagarbha Grewia asiatica

Vrindamadhava 65.13

Vangasena striroga.229

13. Vasamula yonilepa in moodagarbha Adhatoda vasica Nees

Gadanigraha 6.42

Chakradatta 63.17

Vaidyamanorama 13.28

14. Jaliniphala ghranana in kamala Luffa echinata Roxb. Rajamarthanda 3.28, [10]
15. Kusumbha with kshoudra and tandulambu in Mutakrichra Carthamus tinctorious -----------
16. Kanika(pippali)lepa with ajapaya and ghritha in vatarakta Piper longum Linn -----------------

16 single drug recipes which are mentioned in Sidhasarasamhita are found in different compendia including Vrindamadhava. These recipes are not as such available in the Brhatrayi. These may be the original contributions of Ravigupta. The use of Arjunakshirapaka in Hridroga which is an original contribution of Vrinda is not mentioned in Sidhasarasamhita. Asoka is not mentioned in pradarachikitsa. Vrindamadhava mentions the use of powder of vacha along with honey in Apasmara. The use of Parasikayavani for the treatment of helminths (krimi) which is found in Vrindamadhava is not mentioned in Sidhasarasamhita. In kamala dronapushpirasa is mentioned for anjana and karkotamula for nasya. These recipes are available in Vrindamadhava. In sleepada and galaganda no drugs were mentioned. Sakhotaka sidha taila which is prescribed in apachi by Susrutha [11] is indicated in gandamala by Ravigupta. Sakhotaka is indicated as the prime drug for sleepada by Sarngadhara [12]. Vangasena mentions the use of Nirgundirasasidhaghrita in yakshma and nagakesarakalka in pradara which may be the original contributions of Sidhasarasamhita. Acharya Charaka mentions the use of kusumbha beeja with Draksha rasa in Ashmari and Mutrakruchra [13]. The author of Sidhasarasamhita mentions Kusumbha along with kshoudra and tandulambu in the management of mootrakrichra. Kanika (Pippali) is mentioned for lepa in vatarakta. Ravigupta mentions the use of brhatirasa lepa in indralupta, whereas kshudravartaka rasa is mentioned by Vaghbata [14]. Leafbuds of panchakshirivriksha were indicated for vranasandhana. Leaves of Karanja, plaksha, jambu as patradana (bandage) for vrana sodhana ropana was suggested. The author for first time described vishanasakvarga consisting of Eshwari, Kadali, Nagi, chanda, sweta, ghanaswana and nirgundi. Author has furnished kalpas with drugs namely Lashuna, palandu, erandataila, Bhallataka, pippali, shilajit, haritaki and dhatri. Vrindamadhava (9th AD) has introduced new drugs like parasikayavani and diseases like snayuka and vardhmaroga. These descriptions are not available in sidhasarasamhita. It appears that this samhita was written prior to Vrindamadhava and may be placed in 8th century.

CONCLUSION

Sidhasarasamhita written by Ravi Gupta is a book on ashtanga ayurveda written in anushtupp chandas. The author has given importance to single drug therapy and quoted several simple herbal recipes collected from various texts of Ayurveda. Total 151 single drug recipes were found in the book of which 16 recipes may be the original contributions of Ravigupta to the Ayurvedic materia medica. There is no clear indication regarding the time period of the work and based on the evidence available it may be placed in 8th century prior to Vrindamadhava.

CONFLICT OF INTERESTS

Declared none

REFERENCES

  1. Acharya Balakrishna. Editor. Sidhasarasamhita. Divya-prakashan, Patanjali Yogapeet; 2014. p. 1-363.
  2. PV Sharma. Ayurved Ka vaijyanik itihas. 8th ed. Choukhambha orientalia Varanasi; 2005. p. 109.
  3. PV Sharma. Introduction to dravyagunavijnan. 3rd ed. Choukhambha orientalia Varanasi; 2005. p. 394.
  4. Pandit Hariharaprasad Trivedi. Editor. Vangasenasamhita. 1st ed. Chaukhambha Sanskrita Series Office, Varanasi; 2009. p. 188-226.
  5. G Prabhakar Rao. Editor. Chakradutta. 1st ed. Chukhambha Sanskrit Bhavan, Varanasi; 2014. p. 151.
  6. Premvatitewari. editor. Vrindamadhava Part I. 1st ed. Chaukhambha Visvabharati, Varanasi; 2007. p. 410.
  7. Premvatitewari. editor. Vrindamadhava Part II. 1st ed. Chaukhambha Visvabharati, Varanasi; 2007. p. 862.
  8. Shri Gangasahay Pandey. Editor. Gadanigraha Part II. 4th ed. Chaukhambha Sanskrit prakashan, Varanasi; 2003. p. 283.
  9. Vaidyalakshmipati Shashtri. editor Yogaratnakara. 1st Reprint, Chaukhambhaprakashan, Varanasi; 2010. p. 407.
  10. K Nishteswar, Vidyanath. Editors. Rajamarthanda, Chaukhambha Orientalia Varanasi; 2008. p. 126.
  11. Acharyayadavajitrikamji. Editor. Sushruta Samhita, Reprint, Chaukhambha Surbharti Prakashan, Varanasi; 2013. p. 471.
  12. Himasagara Chandramurthy. Editor. Sharangdharsamhita; Chaukhamnha Orientalia, Varanasi; 2010. p. 132.
  13. Yadavji Trikamji Acharya. Editor. Charakasamhita, Reprint, Chaukhambha Surabharati Prakashan, Varanasi; 2013. p. 600.
  14. Shivaprasad Sharma. Editor. Astangasamgraha Chaukhambha Krishnadas Academy, Banaras; 2012. p. 461.

How to cite this article

  • K Nishteswar, Vidhya Unnikrishnan. Herbal monotherapy of sidhasarasamhita. J Crit Rev 2017;4(1):12-16.


About this article

Title

HERBAL MONOTHERAPY OF SIDHASARASAMHITA

Keywords

Ravigupta, Sidhasarasamhita, Single drug recipes

DOI

10.22159/jcr.2016v3i4.11216

Date

19-01-2017

Additional Links

Manuscript Submission

Journal

Journal of Critical Reviews
Vol 4, Issue 1, 2017 Page: 12-16

Online ISSN

2394-5125

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Authors & Affiliations

K. Nishteswar

Vidhya Unnikrishnan
Department of Dravyaguna, IPGT&RA, Jamnagar
India


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