RECENT THERAPEUTIC PROGRESS OF CHALCONE SCAFFOLD BEARING COMPOUNDS AS PROSPECTIVE ANTI-GOUT CANDIDATES
Gout is a common form of arthritis characterized by severe and sudden pain for a long duration, swelling, tenderness, lingering discomfort, and acute redness in the joint situated at the big toe due to the accumulation of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals. Though, at present these drugs have limited pharmacodynamics benefits with the emergence of adverse effects. Therefore, the modern trend has perceived a shift towards the regular use of natural products and tailored-approach, which have revolutionized the prescription pattern from traditional combinations to unexplored classes of drugs. Natural product classes such as chalcones have received adequate attention for treating these severe ailments with a better margin of safety. Chalcone or 1,3-diphenyl-2-propene-1-one or benzylideneacetophenone are the natural scaffold comprising of two aromatic rings connected together by a three-carbon α, β unsaturated carbonyl link. The chalcone scaffold bearing synthetic (polyhydroxylated chalcones, 3,5,2,4-tetrahydroxychalcone, trans-chalcone) and natural (sappanchalcone, okanin, hesperidin methylchalcone, quercetin chalcone, 4-hydroxyderricin, isobavachalcone, xanthoangelol F, xanthoangelol, and xanthoangeleol B) compounds have been found to exhibit tremendous anti-gout activity by completely suppressing the active disease proliferating enzyme, xanthine oxidase (XO) as well as by suppressing the activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κβ), along with preventing the formation and influx of pro-inflammatory factors. The overview glance of this scientific review will provide information to the scientists working in the pharmaceutical as well as allied science fields in fabricating, screening, and exploring the abundant hidden chemical classes based on the provided structural, chemical, and miscellaneous aspects.
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