EFFECTIVENESS OF TELEPHONE-DELIVERED INTERVENTIONS FOR INCREASING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVELS IN PERSONS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES OR HYPERTENSION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
Objective: Telephone calls can potentially be an accessible and cost-effective modality for delivering physical activity (PA) interventions to primary care patients. This review aims to evaluate the effectiveness of telephone counseling to increase PA levels in persons with type 2 diabetes (T2D) or hypertension.
Methods: A systematic search (to May 2014) was conducted on the following databases, CINHAL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Pub Med, and Psych INFO. Articles were included if they contained a control group, included participants with T2D or hypertension, implemented predominately a PA intervention, included PA as a primary outcome measure, and used telephone calls as a predominant delivery method for the intervention.
Results: Thirteen articles that reported on eight studies were included in the final review. All eight studies assessed PA levels at the end of the intervention (post-intervention), and five studies assessed PA levels at follow-up. Post-intervention, 5/8 studies produced a significant effect on PA outcomes (with increases in PA favoring the experimental group). Large effect sizes (Cohenâ€™s d>0.8) were calculated for three studies, and a medium (Cohenâ€™s d: 0.5-0.79) and small effect sizes (Cohenâ€™s d: 0.2-0.49) were calculated for one study. At follow-up, 3/5 studies produced a significant effect on PA outcomes. One study reported a large effect size and two studies reported a small effect size.
Conclusions: Telephone calls show promise for delivering PA interventions for persons with T2D. No conclusions can be made regarding the effectiveness of telephone calls for persons with hypertension (only one study reported the number of patients with hypertension).
Keywords: Physical activity, Exercise, Telephone, Type 2 Diabetes, Hypertension.
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