• Savitha T. Department of Microbiology, Tiruppur Kumaran College for Women, Tiruppur, Tamilnadu, India


Biofilm is an assembly of the microbial cells that is irreversibly associated with a surface and usually enclosed in a matrix of polysaccharide material. Biofilm is composed of microbial cells and extra cellular polymeric substance (EPS). Extra cellular polymeric matrix plays various roles in structure and function of different biofilm communities. Adhesion to the surface provides considerable advantages such as protection against antimicrobial agents, acquisition of new genetic traits, and the nutrient availability and metabolic co-operability. The formation of biofilm takes place in three steps. Biofilm is responsible for chronic bacterial infection, infection on medical devices, deterioration of water quality and the contamination of food. This review article provides an overview of the formation of biofilm, structure, role in microbial communities and its applications.

Keywords: Bio film, Polymeric substance, Adhesion, Pathogenesis.


1. Donlan RM. Bio film and device associated infections. Emerging Infect Dis 2001;7:227-81.
2. Watnick P, Kolter R. Biofilm, city of microbes. J Bacteriol 2000;182:2675-9.
3. Kumar CG. Significance of microbial biofilm in food industry: a review. Int J Food Microbiol 1998;42:9-27.
4. Deibel V. Biofilms. J Food Safety 2001;1:6-7.
5. Davey EM, Otoole AG. Microbial biofilm: From ecology to molecular genetics. Microbiol Mol Biol 2000;64:847-67.
6. Donlan RM, Costerton JW. Biofilm: Survival mechanism of clinically relevant microorganism. Clin Microbiol Rev 2002;15:167-93.
7. Kumar A, Prasad R. Biofilms. JK Sci 2006;8:14-7.
8. Gilbert P, Das J, Foley I. Bio film susceptibility to antimicrobials. Adv Dental Res 1997;11:162-7.
9. Nichols WW, Dorrington SM, Slack MPE, Walmsley HL. Inhibition of tobramycin diffusion by binding to alginate. Antimicrob Agent Chemother 1988;32:518-23.
10. Nichols WW, Evans MJ, Slack MPE, Walmsley HL. Penetration of antibiotic into aggregate of mucoid and non mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Gen Microbiol 1989;135:1291-303.
11. Decho AW. Microbial exopolymer secretion in ocean environment: Their role(s) in food web and marine process. Oceanography Marine Biol Ann Rev 1990;28:73-153.
12. Flemming HC. Biofilm and environmental protection. Water Sci Technol 1993;27:1-10.
13. Costerton JW, Lewaldowski DE, Caldwell DR, Korber DR, Lappin-Scott HM. Microbial biofilms. Annu Rev Microbiol 1995;49:711-45.
14. Donlan RM. Biofilms: microbial life on surfaces. Emerging Infect Dis 2002;8:881-90.
15. Allison PG, Ruiz B, Sanjose, Gillbert P. Extra cellular products as mediators of the formation an detachment of Pseudomonas fluoroscens biofilm. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1998;167:179-84.
16. Chmielewski RAN, Frank JF. Bio film formation and control in food processing facilities. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2003;2:22-32.
17. Keyhani NO, Roseman S. The chitin catabolic cascade in the marine bacterium Vibrio furnissii. J Biol Chem 1996;271:33414-24.
18. Roberts AP, Pratten J, Wilson M, Mullany P. Transfer of a conjugative transposon, Tn5397 in a model oral biofilm. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1999;177:63-6.
19. Christensen BB, Sternberg C, Andersen JB, Eberl L, Moller S. Establishment of new genetic traits in a microbial bio film community. Appl Environ Microbiol 1998;64:2247-55.
20. Costerton W, Veeh R, Shirtliff M, Pasmore M, Ehrlich G. The application of bio film science to the study and control of chronic bacterial infections. J Clin Invest 2003;112:1466-77.
21. Costerton JW, Stweart PS, Greenberg EP. Bacterial bio films: A common cause of persistent infection. Science 1999;284:1318-22.
22. Darouiche RO. Anti-infective efficacy of silver-coated medical prostheses. Clin Infect Dis 1999;29:1371-7.
23. Elliott TSJ, Moss HA, Tebbs SE, Wilson IC, Bonser RS. Novel approach to investigate a source of microbial contamination of central venous catheters. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1997;16:210-3.
24. Wells CJ, Leech GJ, Lever AM, Wansbrough-Jones MH. Treatment of native valve Candida endocarditis with fluconazole. J Infect Dis 1995;31:233-5.
25. Domingue GJ, Hellstrom WJG. Prostitis. Clin Microbiol Rev 1998;11:604-13.
26. Bishop PL. Biofilm structure and kinetics. Water Sci Technol 1997;36:287-94.
27. Stickler DJ. Bacterial bio films and encrustation of urethral catheters. Biofouling 1996;94:293-305.
271 Views | 491 Downloads
How to Cite
T., S. (2015). PERSPECTIVE STUDY OF BIO FILM AND ITS APPLICATIONS. Journal of Critical Reviews, 2(4), 1-5. Retrieved from
Life Sciences