Optimization of culture conditions for production and germination of artificial seed in an important medicinal plant, Gentiana kurroo
Background: Gentiana kurroo royle is a critically endangered herb which is known as a bitter drug in Indian medicine. It has been widely distributed among Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, northern western Himalayas (between the altitude ranges of 1500 and 3500 m), Nepal and Pakistan. It has been reported as the main producer of secondary metabolites belonging to the family Gentianaceae.
Material and Methods: This study utilized somatic embryogenesis as a source for the artificial seed production of G. kurroo royle. Morphogenetic capabilities of leaf explants have been optimized on MS media containing different concentrations and combination of KN+2,4-D. Â Upon callus induction, torpedo shaped somatic embryos were selected for artificial seed production. The artificial seed were produced using the different concentrations of sodium alginate and calcium chloride solution followed by germination on MS media supplemented with IBA+KN+GA3.
Results: The study revealed that KN (1mg\L) and 2,4-D (0.5 mg\L) are most appropriate for callus initiation and its proliferation. The artificial seeds were successfully produced with 3% sodium alginate and 100 mM calcium chloride solution. The 90-95% germination of artificial was achieved in 7-10 days on MS media supplemented with IBA (1mg/L)+KN (3mg/L)+GA3 (2 mg/L).Conclusions: Artificial seed production has led to increase in the viability rates and germination potential of G. kurroo royle seeds in soil, thereby providing efficient means of germplasm conservation, easy transportation and large scale propagation of endangered species.
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