• MOSTAFA M RADY Department of Botany, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt,
  • MOHAMED A SEIF EL-YAZAL Department of Botany, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt,
  • HANAN AA TAIE Department of Plant Biochemistry, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.
  • SAFIA MA AHMED Department of Botany, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt,


Objective: The distribution, growth, development and productivity of wheat plants are greatly affected by various abiotic stresses such as lead (Pb) stress which become one of the most abundant toxic metal in the earth crust. Under the three applied polyamine (PAs) applications, the efficiency of wheat plants to tolerate Pb2+ stress in terms of growth and yield characteristics was noticed to varying degrees.

Methods: The current study focused on the impact of 2.0 mM lead (Pb2+) on growth and performance of wheat plants before and after PAs applications. The sterilized seeds were soaked for 8 h at room temperature, either in distilled water (as a control), 0.25 mM spermine (Spm), 0.50 mM spermidine (Spd), or in 1.0 mM putrescine (Put).

Results: Point out that, better growth and yield characteristics, chlorophyll “a” (Chl-a), chlorophyll “b” (Chl-b), soluble sugars, indoles, and enzymatic antioxidants (i.e., peroxidase (POX), catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, ascorbate oxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and glutathione reductase) and the enzyme α-amylase contents were obtained with seed soaking in 0.25 mM Spm, 0.50 mM Spd, or 1.0 mM Put than those generated with seed soaking in water under 2.0 mM Pb2+ stress. In contrast, the concentration of endogenous Pb2+ was significantly reduced.

Conclusion: Among all tested PAs, 1.0 mM Put showed the best results and thus is recommended, as seed soaking, for wheat to grow well under Pb2+ stress.

Keywords: Triticum aestivum, lead, polyamines, osmoprotectants, antioxidantenzyme, growth, yield


1. Zaki E, Nabila M, Hassanein MS, Gamal El-Din K. Growth and yield of some wheat cultivars irrigated with saline water in newly cultivated land as affected by biofertilization. J Appl Sci Res 2007;3:1121-6.
2. Shaikh IR, Rafique AS, Shaikh AA. Phytotoxic effects of heavy metals Parveen Rajjak (Cr, Cd, Mn and Zn) on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed germination and seedlings growth in black cotton soil of Nanded. India Res J Chem Sci 2013;3:14-23.
3. Pourrut B, Shahid M, Camille D, Peter W, Eric P. Lead uptake, toxicity, and detoxification in plants. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 2011;213:113-36.
4. Ashraf U, Kanu AS, Mo ZW, Hussain S, Anjum SA, Khan I, et al. Lead toxicity in rice: Effects, mechanisms and mitigation strategies-a mini review. Environ Sci Pollut Res 2015;22:18318-32.
5. Rady MM, Seif El-Yazal MA, Aly Taie HA, Ahmed SM. Response of wheat growth and productivity to exogenous polyamines under lead stress. J Crop Sci Biotech 2016;19:363-71.
6. Shahid M, Pinelli E, Pourrut B, Silvestre J, Dumat C. Lead-induced genotoxicity to Vicia faba L. roots in relation with metal cell uptake and initial speciation. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2011;74:78.
7. Kumar A, Prasad MN, Sytar O. Lead toxicity, defense strategies and associated indicative biomarkers in Talinum triangulare grown hydroponically. Chemosphere 2012;89:1056-65.
8. Singh R, Tripathi RD, Dwivedi S, Kumar A, Trivedi PK, Chakrabarty D. Lead bioaccumulation potential of an aquatic macrophyte Najas indica are related to antioxidant system. Bioresour Technol 2010;101:3025-32.
9. Ashraf U, Kanu1 AS, Deng Q, Mo Z, Pan S, Tian H, et al. Lead (Pb) toxicity; physio-biochemical mechanisms, grain yield, quality, and PB distribution proportions in scented rice. Front Plant Sci 2017;8:1-17.
10. Mishra A, Choudhary MA. Amelioration of lead and mercury effects on germination and rice seedling growth by antioxidants. Biol Plantarum 1998;1:469-73.
11. Mittler R. Oxidative stress, antioxidant and stress tolerance. Trends Plant Sci 2002;7:841-51.
12. Ali B, Xu X, Gill RA, Yang S, Ali S, Tahir M, et al. Promotive role of 5-aminolevulinic acid on mineral nutrients and antioxidative defense system under lead toxicity in Brassica napus. Ind Crop Prod 2014;52:617-26.
13. Alcázar R, Altabella T, Marco F, Bortolotti C, Reymond M, Koncz C, et al. Polyamines: Molecules with regulatory functions in plant abiotic stress tolerance. Planta 2010;231:1237-49.
14. Kusano T, Berberich T, Tateda C, Takahashi Y. Polyamines: Essential factors for growth and survival. Planta 2008;228:367-81.
15. Galston AW, Sawhney RK. Polyamines in plant physiology. Plant Physiol 1990;4:406-10.
16. Bouchereau A, Aziz A, Larher F, Martin-Tanguy J. Polyamines and environmental challenges: Recent development. Plant Sci 1999;140:103-25.
17. Takahashi T, Kakehi J. Polyamines: Ubiquitous polycations with unique roles in growth and stress responses. Ann Bot 2010;105:1-6.
18. Hussain SS, Ali M, Ahmad M, Siddique KH. Polyamines: Natural and engineered abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in plants. Biotechnol Adv 2011;29:300-11.
19. Liu JH, Kitashiba H, Wang J, Ban Y, Moriguchi T. Polyamines and their ability to provide environmental stress tolerance to plants. Plant Biotechnol 2007;24:117-26.
20. Pathak MR, da Silva JA, Wani SH. Polyamines in response to abiotic stress tolerance through transgenic approaches. GM Crops Food 2014;5:87-96.
21. Amooaghaie R. Role of polyamines in the tolerance ofsoybean to water deficit stress. World Acad Sci Eng Technol 2011;80:498-502.
22. Shi J, Fu XZ, Peng T, Fan Q, Liu JH. Spermine pretreatment confers dehydration tolerance of citrus in vitro plants via modulation of antioxidative capacity and stomatal response. Tree Physiol 2010;30:914-22.
23. Atul PS, Neha GP, Mahes BT, Sharad MG. Engineering polyamines for abiotic stress tolerance. Ind J Appl Res 2015;5:1-25.
24. Welburn AR, Lichtenthaler H. Formula and program to determine total caroteniods and chlorophyll a and b of leaf extracts different solvents. In: Sybesma C, editor. Advances in Photosynthesis Research. Vol. 2. The Hague: Mortinus Njihoff Dr. W. Junk Publishers; 1984. p. 9-12.
25. Petrova AN, Bolotina TT. Studies on the enzyme of starch metabolism in potato tuber during growth. Biochemistry 1956;21:4-15.
26. Beer RF, Sizer IW. A spectrophotometric method for measuring the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide by catalase. J Biol Chem 1952;195:133.
27. Cakmak I, Marshner H. Magnesium deficiency and high light intensity enhance activities of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase in bean leaves. Plant Physiol 1992;98:1222-7.
28. Maehly AC, Chance BC. The assay of catalases and peroxidases. In: Glick D, editor. Methods of Biochemical Analysis. Vol. 1. New York: Inderscience Publishers; 1954.
29. Schaedle M, Bassham JA. Chloroplast glutathione reductase. Plant Physiol 1977;59:1011-2.
30. Taneja SR, Sachar RC. Introduction of polyphenol oxidase in germinating wheat seeds. Phytochemistry 1974;13:2695-702.
31. Dawson CR, Magee RJ. Ascorbic acid oxidase. In: Colowich SP, editor. Methods in Enzymology. New York: Academic Press; 1955. p. 831-5.
32. Velikova V, Yordanov I, Edreva A. Oxidative stress and some antioxidant system in acid rain treated bean plants: Protective role of exogenous polyamines. Plant Sci 2000;151:59-66.
33. Scott TA, Melvin EH. Anthrone colorimetric method. In: Whistler RL, Walfrom ML, editor. Methods in Carbohydrate Chemistry. Vol. 1. New York, London: Academic Press; 1956. p. 384.
34. Larson P, Herbo A, Klunsour S, Aasheim T. On the biogerensis of some indole compounds in Acetobacter, Xylimum. Physiol Plant 1962;15:552-65.
35. Selim HH, Fayek MA, Sweidan AM. Reproduction of Bircher apple cultivar by layering. Ann Agric Sci 1978;9:157-66.
36. Stanhill G. Water use efficiency. Adv Agron 1987;39:53-85.
37. Kaur G, Singh HP, Batish DR, Kohli RK. Growth, photosynthetic activity and oxidative stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum) after exposure of lead Pb to soil. J Environ Biol 2012;33:265-9.
38. Lerda D. The effect of lead on Allium cepa. Mutat Res 1992;231:80-92.
39. Bashmakov DI, Lukatkin AS, Revin VV, Duchovskis P, Brazaityte A, Baranauskis K. Growth of maize seedlings affected by different concentrations of heavy metals. Ekologija 2005;3:22-7.
40. Jili K, Jun ZZ, Liu Y. Effects of lead (Pb) stress on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat. Guangxi Agri Sci 2009;40:144-6.
41. Walden R, Alexandra C, Tiburcio AF. Polyamines: Small molecules triggering pathways in plant growth and development. Plant Physiol 1997;113:1009-13.
42. Burzynski M. The uptake and transpiration of water and the accumulation of lead by plants growing on lead chloride solutions. Acta Soc Bot Pol 1987;56:271-80.
43. Singh S, Eapen S, Dsouza SF. Cadmium accumulation and its influence on lipid peroxidation and antioxidative system in an aquatic plant Bacopamonnieri L. Chemosphere 2006;62:233-46.
44. Azooz AA, Youssef MM, Al-Qamir MA. Comparative evaluation of zinc and lead and their synergistic effect on growth and physiological responses of Hassawai okra (Hibiscus esculentus) seedling. Am J Plant Physiol 2011;6:269-82.
45. Borrell A, Carbonell L, Farras R, Parellada PP, Tiburcio F. Polyamines inhibit lipid peroxidation in senescing oat leaves. Physiol Plant 1997;99:385-90.
46. Yiu JC, Juang LD, Fang DY, Liu CW, Wu SJ. Exogenous putrescine reduces flooding-induced oxidative damage by increasing the antioxidant properties of Welsh onion. Sci Hortic 2009;120:306-14.
47. Clemens S, Antosiewicz DM, Ward JM, Schachtman DP, Schroeder JI. The plant cDNA LCT1 mediates the uptake of calcium and cadmium in yeast. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1998;95:12043-8.
48. Tlustos P, Balik J, Pavlikova D, Szakova J. The uptake of cadmium, zinc, arsenic and lead by chosen crops. Rostlinna Vyroba 1997;43:487.
49. Köhl KI, Lösch R. Experimental characterization of heavy metal tolerance in plants. In: Prasad MN, Hagemeyer J, editors. Heavy Metal Stress in Plants. Berlin: Springer; 1999. p. 371-89.
50. Walters DR. Polyamines and plant disease. Phytochemistry 2003;64:97-107.
51. Alsokari SS, Aldesuquy HS. Synergistic effect of polyamines and waste water on leaf turgidity, heavy metals accumulation in relation to grain yield. J Appl Sci Res 2011;7:376-84.
52. Ferreira RR, Fornazeir RF, Vitoria AP, Lea AP, Azevedo RA. Changes in antioxidant enzymes activities in soybean under cadmium stress. Plant Nutr 2002;25:327-42.
53. Jha AB, Dubey RS. Carbohydrate metabolism in growing rice seedlings under arsenic toxicity. Plant Physiol 2004;123:1029-36.
54. Sharma SS, Dietz KJ. The significance of amino acids and amino acid-derived molecules in plant responses and adaptation to heavy metal stress. J Exp Bot 2006;57:711-26.
55. Rhee HJ, Kim EJ, Lee JK. Physiological polyamines: Simple primordial stress molecules. J Cell Mol Med 2007;11:685-703.
56. Groppa MD, Rosales EP, Iannone MF, Benavides MP. Nitric oxide, polyamines and Cd-induced phytotoxicity in wheat roots. Phytochemistry 2008;69:2609-15.
57. El-Bassiouny HM, Mostafa HA, El-Khawas SA, Hassanein RA, Khalil SI, Abd El-Monem AA. Physiological responses of wheat plant to foliar treatments with arginine or putrescine. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 2008;2:1390-403.
58. Szepesi A. Salicylic acid improves the acclimation of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. L. to high salinity by approximating its salt stress response to that of the wild species L. pennellii. Acta Biol Szegediensis 2006;50:177.
59. Li CL, Xu HM, Xu J, Chun XY, Ni DJ. Effects of aluminum on ultrastructure and antioxidant activity in leaves of tea plant. Acta Physiol Plant 2011;33:973-8.
60. Schutzendubel A, Polle A. Plant responses to abiotic stresses: Heavy metal induced oxidative stress and protection by mycorrhization. J Exp Bot 2002;53:1351-65.
61. Bashri G, Prasad SM. Indole acetic acid modulates changes in growth, chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant potential of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. grown under cadmium stress. Acta Physiol Plant 2015;37:1745.
62. Alscher PG, Erturk N, Heath LS. Role of superoxide dismutases (SODs) in controlling oxidative stress in plant. J Exp Bot 2002;53:1331-41.
63. Apel K, Hirt H. Reactive oxygen species: Metabolism oxidatives and signal transduction. Ann Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 2004;55:373-99.
64. Noctor G, Foyer CH. Ascorbate and glutathione: Keeping active oxygen under control. Ann Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 1998;49:249-79.
65. Drolet G, Dumbroff EB, Legg R, Thompson JE. Radical scavenging properties of polyamines. Phytochemistry 1986;25:367-71.
66. Poduslo JF, Curran GL. Increased permeability of superoxide dismutase at the blood-nerve and blood-brain barriers with retained enzymatic activity after modification with naturally occurring polyamine, putrescine. J Neurochem 1996;67:734-41.
67. Besford RT, Richardson CM, Campos JL, Tiburcio AF. Effect of polyamines on stabilization of molecular complexes of thylakoid membranes of osmotically stressed oat leaves. Planta 1993;189:201-6.
68. Quartacci MF, Cosi E, Navari-Izzo F. Lipids and NADPH-dependent superoxide production in plasma membrane vesicles from roots of wheat grown under copper deficiency or excess. J Exp Bot 2001;52:77-84.
69. Gill SS, Tuteja N. Polyamines and abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Plant Signal Behav 2010;5:26-33.
70. Kurepa J, Smalle J, Vanmontagu M, Inze D. Polyamines and paraquat toxicity in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Physiol 1998;39:987-92.
71. Lovaas E. Antioxidant and metal-chelating effects of polyamines. In: Sies H, editor. Advances in pharmacology. In: Antioxidants in Disease Mechanisms and Therapy. Vol. 38. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Academic Press; 1997. p. 119-49.
72. Foyer CH, Noctor G. Oxidant and antioxidant signaling in plants: A reevaluation of the concept of oxidative stress in a physiological context. Plant Cell Environ 2005;28:1056-71.
73. Kolupaev YE, Oboznyi AI, Shvidenko NV. Role of hydrogen peroxide generation of a signal inducing heat tolerance of wheat seedlings. Russ J Plant Physiol 2013;60:221-9.
74. Tanou G, Ziogas V, Belghazi M, Christou A, Filippou P, Job D. Polyamines reprogram oxidative and nitrosative status and the proteome of citrus plants exposed to salinity stress. Plant Cell Environ 2014;37:864-85.
75. Aldesuquy H S, Haroun SA, Abo-Hamed SA, Al-Saied AA. Physiological studies of some polyamines on wheat plants irrigated with waste water. Osmolytes in relation to osmotic adjustment and grain yield. Phyton 2011;50:263-8.
76. Mallan HI, Farrant JM. Effect of metal pollutants cadmium and nickel on soybean seed development. Seed Sci Res 1998;8:445-53.
77. Aldesuquy HS, Haroun SA, Abo-Hamed SA, El-Said AA. Ameliorating effect of kinetin on pigments, photosynthetic characteristics, carbohydrate contents and productivity of cadmium treated Sorghum bicolor plants. Acta Bot Hungar 2004;46:1-21.
78. Kaur-Sawhney R, Shih-Flores HE, Galston AW. Relation of polyamine synthesis and titer to aging and senescence in oat leaves. Plant Physiol 1982;69:405-10.
79. Aldesuquy HS. Effect of spermine and spermidine on wheat plants irrigated with waste water: Conductive canals of flag leaf and peduncle in relation to grain yield. J Stress Physiol Biochem 2014;10:145-66.
80. Tiburcio AF, Altabella T, Masgrau C. Polyamines. In: Bisseling T, Schell J, editors. New Developments in Plant Hormone Research. New York: Springer-Verlag; 2002.
81. Liang ZS, Yang JW, Shao HB, Han RL. Investigation on water consumption characteristics and water use efficiency of Poplar under soil water-deficits on the Loess Plateau. Biointerfaces 2006;53:23-8.
82. Manivannan P, Jaleel CA, Sankar B, Kishorekumar A, Somasundaram R, Lakshmanan GM, et al. Growth biochemical modifications and proline metabolism in Helianthus annuusL. As induced by drought stress. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2007;59:141-9.
83. Liu H, Yu BJ, Zhang W, Liu Y. Effect of osmotic stress on the activity of H+ -ATPase and the levels of covalently and non-covalently conjugated polyamines in plasma membrane preparation from wheat seedling roots. Plant Sci 2005;168:1599-607.
84. Shao HB, Chu LY, Jaleel AC, Zhao CX. Water-deficit stress-induced anatomical changes in higher plants. C R Biol 2008;331:215-25.
85. Ibrahim AH, Aldesuquy HS. Glycine betaine and shikimic acid induced modification in growth criteria, water relation and productivity of drought Sorghum bicolor plants. Phyton 2003;43:351-63.
55 Views | 37 Downloads
How to Cite
Review Article(s)