ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF MANGIFERA INDICA LEAF EXTRACT ON FUNGI ISOLATED FROM BREAD VENDED WITHIN BAKORI, NIGERIA
Keywords:Antifungal activity, Aspergillus, Extract, Mangifera indica, Mucor, Phytochemical
Objective: The present study was carried out to determine the antifungal activity of Mangifera indica leaves extract on fungi isolated from bread vended within Bakori.
Methods: The powdered form of M. indica leaves was used to prepare the extract using ethanol, the leaves were air dried at room temperature for 10 days.
Results: The chemical test was carried out to identify the secondary metabolites, some of the metabolites that were present include alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, and tannins. Both fungal isolates were identified on the basis of morphological characteristics as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, and Mucor spp. The antifungal activity of M. indica leaves extract was determined using agar well diffusion method on Aspergillus and Mucor spp. The results showed that the extract was found to inhibit A. niger at 100 mg/ml, 50 mg/ml, and 25 mg/ml with 13.9 mm, 11.5 mm, and 8.0 mm, respectively, and A. flavus at 100 mg/ml, 50 mg/ml, and 25 mg/ml with 13.6 mm, 11.2 mm, and 8.1 mm, respectively, while Mucor spp. was found to be resistant at 25 mg/ml while 100 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml showed an activity. Minimum inhibitory concentration result showed a promising activity against Aspergillus spp. at 25 mg/ml while Mucor spp. at 50 mg/ml.
Conclusion: Therefore, M. indica leaf extracts can be used in the treatment of diseases or illness caused by Aspergillus and Mucor spp.
Agrios GN. Plant Pathology. 4th ed. San Diego, CA: Academic Press; 1997.
Vankar PS. Essential oils and fragrances from natural sources. Resonance 2004;9:30-41.
Bashir KA, Musa DD, Mohammed I. Exploring the potential of drumstick (Moringa oleifera) leaf extract as vegetative growth enhancer of guinea corn (Sorghum bicolor L.). Int J Curr Sci Stud 2017a;1:9-12.
Bashir KA, Musa DD, Aisha A. Antifungal activity of garlic (Allium sativum) extract on some selected fungi. J Med Herbs Ethnomed 2018;4:12-4.
Sahrawat A, Pal S, Shahi SK. Antibacterial activity of Mangifera indica (mango) leaves against drug resistant bacterial strains. Int J Adv Res 2013;1:82-6.
Edeoga HO, Okwu DE, Mbaebie BO. Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants. Afr Biotech 2005;4:685-8.
Xu BJ, Chang SK. A comparative study on phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of legumes as affected by extraction solvents. J Food Sci 2007;72:159-66.
Bashir KA, Kamaruzamn S, Khairulmazmi A, Zulkifli AS, Shahril FA, Norzihan A. Characterisation and pathological variability of Exserohilum turcicum responsible for causing northern corn leaf blight (NCLB) disease in Malaysia. Malays J Microbiol 2017b;13:41-9.
Zhou K, Yu L. Effects of extraction solvent on wheat bran antioxidant activity estimation. LWT Food Sci Technol 2004;37:717-21.
Oyeleke SB, Manga SB. Essentials of Llaboratory Practicals in Microbiology. 1st ed. Minna, Nigeria: Tobest Publishers Ltd.; 2008.
Nikhal SB, Dambe PA, Ghongade DB, Goupale DC. Hydroalcoholic extraction of Mangifera indica (leaves) by Soxhletion. Int J Pharm Sci 2010;2:30-2.
Bem AD, Bashir KA, Asongu SH. Phytochemical screening of some plant species found in federal university Dutsin-Ma take-off site, Katsina State, Nigeria. Acad J Curr Res 2020;7:33-9.
Ncube NS, Afolayan AJ, Okoh AI. Assessment techniques of antimicrobial properties of natural compounds of plant origin: Current methods and future trends. Afr J Biotechnol 2008;7:1797-806.
Trease GE, Evans WC. Textbook of Pharmacognosy. 12th ed. London United Kingdom: Tindal and Saunders Ltd.; 2002. p. 616.
Umar KJ, Hassan LG, Dangoggo SM, Ladan MJ. Nutritional composition of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatic Forsk) leaves. J Appl Sci 2007;7:803-9.
Singh SK, Kumar Y, Kumar S, Sharma VK, Dua K, Samad A. Antimicrobial evaluation of mangiferin analogues. Indian J Pharm Sci 2009;71:328-31.
Shah KA, Patel MB, Patel RJ, Parmar PK. Mangifera indica (Mango). Pharmacogn Rev 2010;4:42-8.
Tijjani A, Bashir KA, Aliyu M, Abubakar AA, Adamu AD. Fungicidal efficacy of crude extracts from some indigenous plants against fungal pathogens associated with tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit rots. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2018;7:1565-70.
Singh M, Khatoon S, Singh S, Kumar V, Rawat AS, Mehrotra S. Antimicrobial screening of ethno botanically important stem bark of medicinal plants. Pharmacogn Res 2010;2:254-7.
Gupta P, Deshmukh P, Ravishanker. Antimicrobial and phytochemical screening of Mangifera indica against skin aliments. J Pure Appl Microbiol 2010;4:387-92.
Ahmed SO, Omer MA, Almagboul AZ, Abdrabo AN. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Mangifera indica L. Gezira J Health Sci 2005;1:82-91.
El-Gied AA, Joseph MR, Mahmoud IM, Abdelkareem AM, Al Hakami AM, Hamid ME. Antimicrobial activities of seed extracts of mango (Mangifera indica L.). Adv Microbiol 2012;2:571-6.
Jain P, Nafis G. Antifungal activity of crude aqueous and methanolic amchur (Mangifera indica) extracts against Candida species. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2011;9:85-7.
Stoilova I, Gargova S, Stoyanova A, Ho L. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the polyphenol mangiferin. Herba Pol 2005;51:37-44.