Alternate options to rice (Oryza sativa) - wheat (Triticum aestivum) cropping system for partially reclaimed sodic soils
Keywords:Cropping systems, Diversification, Equivalent yield, Energy use efficiency, Partially reclaimed sodic soils, Production efficiency, Water use efficiency
A field experiment was conducted during 2013-14 to 2015-16 at Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Regional Research Station, experimental farm, Shivri, Lucknow to find out the alternate options to rice (Oryza sativa L.)- wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping system in partially reclaimed sodic soils. Four cropping systems viz. rice (Oryza sativa L.)- Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (Cereal based), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)–berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) (Fodder based), sweet basil (tulsi) (Ocimum basilicum L.)– matricaria (Matricaria chamomilla) ( medicinal and aromatic crop based) and chilli ( Capsicum spp.)- garlic (Allium sativum linn.) (spices based) were evaluated in the light of sustainability, potentiality and profitability. Maximum rice equivalent yield (14.21 t/ ha) and production efficiency (61.25 kg/ ha/ day) were recorded with sweet basil-matricaria cropping system whereas, highest land use efficiency (78.35%) was observed under sorghum –berseem fodder based cropping system. Highest water expense efficiency (150.72 kg/ ha cm) was recorded with Chilli-garlic cropping system followed by sweet basil-matricaria, but the total amount of water used was more (125.65 cm) in rice-wheat system. The water requirements of sorghum-berseem, sweet basil-matricaria and chilli –garlic cropping systems were 8.0, 19.8 and 31.8% less than the rice-wheat cropping system. Among the cropping systems evaluated, maximum energy input (27.50 MJ/ ha) and out put (314.46 MJ/ ha) were analyzed in rice-wheat system. Whereas, maximum energy use efficiency (11.99) was found with sweet basil- matricaria followed by sorghum-berseem (11.91) cropping systems. Highest soil ameliorative potential was established with sweet basil -matricaria cropping system than rest of the cropping systems. Highest net return (Rs. 63222/ ha) and benefit: cost ratio of 2.74 was deliberated with medicinal and aromatic crop based sweet basil-matricaria cropping system than rest of the cropping systems.
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