COMPARATIVE PHYTOCHEMICAL AND NUTRITIONAL ANALYSIS CYPERUS ESCULENTUS L. AND CYPERUS ROTUNDUS L. (CYPERACEAE)

Authors

  • UGIOMOH GI Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
  • EKEKE C Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
  • ORLU CHIBEOSO H Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.22159/ijags.2022.v10i6.46589

Keywords:

Phytochemicals, Cyperus, Vitamin, Tigernut, Nutsedge

Abstract

The provision of adequate and sufficient nutrition is of paramount importance, especially in developing nations. Thus to ensure the provision of proper and adequate nutrition to such populations, exploitation of underutilized food varieties is crucial; however, Cyperus esculentus is widely consumed in Nigeria but its close relative Cyperus rotundus is sparingly eaten. The phytochemical and nutritional compositions of two Cyperus species, namely, C. rotundus (nutsedge) and C. esculentus (tiger nut) of Cyperaceae were evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography. The phytochemical analysis reveals total alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, and glycoside concentrations (g/100 g) of 14.14, 35.55, 29.23, and 14.74, respectively, in tiger nut while that of nutsedge is 16.44, 38.68, 23.23, and 13.26, respectively. Tiger nut vitamin composition includes Vit. B1 3.00%, Vit. B2 0.72%, Vit. B3 0.042%, Vit. B6 0.93%, Vit. B12 4.00%, Vit. C 0.07%, and Vit. E 0.05% while that of nut sedge includes Vit. B1 1.00%, Vit. B2 0.0.97%, Vit. B3 0.05%, Vit. B6 1.00%, Vit. B12 3.00%, Vit. C 0.10%, and Vit. E 0.03%. The concentration of these vitamins (Vit.) in both species was relatively low compared to Vit. A with 19.02% in tiger nut and 15.02% in nutsedge. Other phytochemicals detected include saponins (5.00 ppm for tiger nut and 7.00 ppm for nutsedge), tannins (6.00 ppm for tiger nut and 8.00 ppm for nutsedge), oxalate (4.01 ppm for tiger nut and 3.01 ppm for nut edge), and phytates (6.04 ppm for tiger nut and 7.05 ppm for nutsedge). The presence of these phytochemicals confirms the medicinal abilities of these two Cyperus species.

References

Al-Snafi AE. Traditional uses of Iraqi medicinal plants. IOSR J Pharm 2015;8:32-95.

Amjad MS, Zahoor U, Bussmann RW, Altaf M, Gardazi SM, Abbasi AM. Ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal flora of Harighal, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2020;16:1-28.

Bendixen LE, Nandihalli UB. Worldwide distribution of purple and yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus and C. esculentus). Weed Technol 1987;1:61-5.

Bhaskar M, Dinoop KP, Mandal J. Characterization of ceftriaxone-resistant Aeromonas spp. isolates from stool samples of both children and adults in Southern India. J Health Popul Nutr 2015;33:26.

Christenhusz MJ, Byng JW. The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase. Phytotaxa 2016;261:201-17.

De Castro O, Gargiulo R, Del Guacchio E, Caputo P. A molecular survey concerning the origin of Cyperus esculentus (Cyperaceae, Poales): Two sides of the same coin (weed vs. crop). Ann Bot 2015;115:733-45.

Defelice MS. Yellow Nutsedge Cyperus esculentus L.-snack food of the Gods. Weed Technol 2002;16:901-7.

Ejoh RA, Djomdi I, Ndojouenkeu R. Characteristics of Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) tubers and their performance in the production of a milky drink. J Food Process Preserv 2006;30:145-63.

Enujiugha VN, Agbede JO. Nutritional and anti-nutritional characteristics of African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) seeds. Appl Trop Agric 2000;5:11-4.

Ezeonu CS, Ejikeme CM. Qualitative and quantitative determination of phytochemical contents of indigenous Nigerian softwoods. N J Sci 2016;5601327:1-10.

Food and Agriculture Organization. Guidance Note: Integrating the Right to Adequate Food into Food and Nutrition Security Programmes. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization; 2013.

Gallego-Marin C, Schrum JE, Andrade WA, Shaffer SA, Giraldo LF, Lasso AM, et al. Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase is the cytosolic sensor of Plasmodium falciparum genomic DNA and activates Type I IFN in malaria. J Immunol 2018;200:768-74.

Gambo A, Da’u A. Tigernut (Cyperus esculentus): Composition, products, uses and health benefits-a review. J Pure Appl Sci 2014;7:56-61.

Imam MZ, Sumi CD. Evaluation of antinociceptive activity of hydromethanol extract of Cyperus rotundus in mice. BMC Complement Altern Med 2014;14:83.

Kumar S, Chashoo G, Saxena AK, Pandey AK. Parthenium hysterophorus: A probable source of anticancer, antioxidant and anti-HIV agents. BioMed Res Int 2013;2013:810734.

Kumar S, Pandey AK. Phenolic content, reducing power and membrane protective activities of Solanum xanthocarpum root extracts. Vegetos 2013;26:301-7.

Morsy N. Cardiac glycosides in medicinal plants. In: El-Shemy HA, editor. Aromatic and Medicinal Plants-Back to Nature. London, UK: IntechOpen; 2017.

Nagulendran KR, Velavan S, Mahesh R, Begum VH. In vitro antioxidant activity and total polyphenolic content of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes. E-J Chem 2007;4:440-9.

Nima ZA, Jabier MS, Wagi RI, Hussain HA. Extraction, identification and antibacterial activity of Cyperus oil from Iraq C. rotundus. Eng Technol 2008;26:1156-63.

Oderinde RA, Tairu AO, Atinsola EM. Chemical investigation of the Cyperaceae-1: The proximate analysis of Cyperus rotundus tuber (choqui). Riv Del Sos Grasse 1989;66:211-3.

Pal D, Dutta S, Sarkar A. Evaluation of CNS activities of ethanol extract of roots and rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus in mice. Acta Pol Pharm 2009;66:535-41.

Panche AN, Diwan AD, Chandra SR. Flavonoids: An overview. J Nutr Sci 2016;5:e47.

Raju S, Kavimani S, Rao VU, Reddy KS. Kyliinga nemoralis (Hutch and Dalz) (Cyperaceae) ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology. Pharmacogn J 2011;3:7-24.

Schipper P, Borg SJ, Bos JJ. A revision of the infraspecific taxonomy of Cyperus esculentus (Yellow Nutmeg) with an experimentally evaluated character set. Syst Bot 1995;20:461-81.

Singh P, Khosa RL, Garima M, Jha KK. Establishment of quality parameters and pharmacognostical study of Cyperus rotundus Linn. (Cyperaceae): A well-known traditional medicinal plant. Niger J Exp Clin Biosci 2016;4:19-25.

Sivapalan SR. Medicinal uses and pharmacological activities of Cyperus rotundus Linn-a review. Int J Sci Res Publication 2013;3:1-8.

Srivastava RK, Singh A, Shuka SV. Chemical investigation and pharmaceutical action of Cyperus rotundus-a review. J Biol Active Prod 2013;3:166-72.

Subhashini V, Swamy AV. Phytoremediation of cadmium and chromium and chromium contaminated soils by Cyperus rotundus L. Am Int Res Sci Technol Eng Math 2014;6:97-101.

Thebtaranonth C, Thebraranonth Y, Wanauppthamkul S, Yuthavong Y. Antimalarial sesquiterpenes from tubers of Cyperus rotundus: Structure of 10,12-peroxycalamenene, A sesquiterpene endoperoxide. Phytochemistry 1995;40:125-8.

Umerie SC, Okafor EP, Uka SC. Evaluation of the tubers and oil of Cyperus esculentus. Bioresour Technol 1997;61:171-3.

Wardlaw GM, Kessel WM. Perspective in Nutrition. 5th ed. New York, United States: Mc-Graw Hill; 2002.

Published

25-10-2022

How to Cite

GI, U., C, E., & CHIBEOSO H, O. (2022). COMPARATIVE PHYTOCHEMICAL AND NUTRITIONAL ANALYSIS CYPERUS ESCULENTUS L. AND CYPERUS ROTUNDUS L. (CYPERACEAE). Innovare Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 10(6), 15–19. https://doi.org/10.22159/ijags.2022.v10i6.46589

Issue

Section

Original Article(s)