B. H. Nanjunda Reddy, Pradipta Ranjan Rauta, V. Venkata Lakshmi, Swamy Sreenivasa


Objective: The objective of this study was to develop, formulate and evaluate the sodium alginate grafted poly (acrylamide-co-acrylic acid/cloisite-30B/silver nanoparticle hydrogel composites (SA-PAAm-PAAc/C30B/AgNPs) with varying weight percentage (wt %) of cloisite-30B clay for paclitaxel targeted delivery and anticancer activity.

Methods: Polymer hydrogel composites of different wt % of cloisite-30B modified clay dispersed sodium alginate (SA) grafted polyacrylamide-co-polyacrylic acid were prepared via in situ free radical initiation polymerization reaction technique. In vitro release of paclitaxel (PT) anticancer drug and anticancer studies were performed. The formulations were further evaluated for swelling, drug encapsulation, drug delivery, anticancer activity study, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric (TGA), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) characterizations.

Results: FT-IR spectroscopy of various composite hydrogel formulations displayed good compatibility between sodium alginate, polyacrylamide, and polyacrylic acid polymers. The thermal study reveals that the formulations with clay (C30B) and AgNPs in hydrogel composites exhibit good thermal stability and less % of weight loss (wt.loss) compared to pure formulations. Further, the highest encapsulation efficiency was shown by the formulation S0-0+D (72.66±5.92%) and least encapsulation efficiency was shown by S75Ag+D (41.33±3.12%) compared to rest of the formulations and S50Ag+D & S75Ag+D samples exhibits relatively slightly higher and sustained cumulative release rate of PT drug at an average rate of 80±9 % within 72 hours and also shows relatively better anticancer activity compared to other formulations

Conclusion: Formulations S50Ag+D and S75Ag+Dwere found to be best formulations with a higher cumulative percentage of PT drug release and showed better anticancer activity 


Sodium alginate, Cloisite-30B, AgNps, Paclitaxel, Drug delivery, Anticancer, Acrylamide, Acrylic acid, biopolymer hydrogel composites


Kulkarni PV, Keshavayya J. Preparation, and evaluation of polyvinyl alcohol transdermal membranes of salbutamol sulfate. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2010; 2: 29-32.

Khurana IS, Kaur S, Kaur H, Khurana RK. The multifaceted role of clay minerals in pharmaceuticals. Futuristic OA 2015; 1.

Parida UK. Synthesis and characterization of chitosan-polyvinyl alcohol blended with cloisite 30B for controlled release of the anticancer drug curcumin. J BiomaterNanobiotechnol 2011; 2:414–25.

Vimala K, Yallapu MM, Varaprasad K, Reddy NN, Ravindra S, Naidu NS, Raju KM. Fabrication of curcumin encapsulated chitosan-PVA silver nanocomposite films for improved antimicrobial activity. J BiomaterNanobiotechnol 2011; 2:55–64.

Thoniyot P, Tan MJ, Karim AA, Young DJ, Loh XJ. Nanoparticle–hydrogel composites. Concept, design, and applications of these promising, multi-functional materials. AdvSci 2015; 2:1–13.

Remuñán-López C, Bodmeier R. Mechanical, water uptake and permeability properties of cross-linked chitosan glutamate and alginate films. J Control Release 1997; 44: 215–25.

Pongjanyakul T. Alginate-magnesium aluminum silicate films: Importance of alginate blocks structures. Int J Pharm 2009; 365:100–8.

Thomas V, Namdeo M, Mohan YM, Bajpai SK, Bajpai M. Review on polymer, hydrogel and microgel metal nanocomposites: A facile nanotechnological approach. J MacromolSci Part A Pure ApplChem 2008; 45:107–19.

Asha Rani PV, Low KahMun G, Hande MP, Valiyaveettil S. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles in human cells. ACS Nano 2009; 3:279–90.

Jain J, Arora S, Rajwade JM, Omray P, Khandelwal S, Paknikar KM. Silver nanoparticles in therapeutics: Development of an antimicrobial gel formulation for topical use. Mol Pharm 2009; 6(5):1388–1401.

El-Ansari A, Al-Daihan S. On the toxicity of therapeutically used nanoparticles: An overview. J Toxicol 2009; 2009:1–9.

Zhang Z, Mei L, Feng S, S. Paclitaxel drug delivery systems. Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2013; 10:325–40.

Patil V, BelsareD. Development and evaluation of novel drug delivery system of tolterodine tartrate. Int J Appl Pharm 2017; 9:186-93.

Hago EE, Li X. Interpenetrating polymer network hydrogels based on gelatin and PVA by biocompatible approaches: synthesis and characterization. Adv Mater SciEng 2013; 2013:1-8.

Harshil P. Shah, Shailesh T. Prajapati, Patel CN.Gastroretentive drug delivery systems: from conception to commercial success. J Crit Rev 2017; 4:1- 21.

Bartil T, Bounekhel M, Cedric C, Jeerome R. Swelling behavior and release properties of pH-sensitive hydrogels based on methacrylic derivatives. Acta Pharm 2007; 57:301–14.

Zhang J, Wang Q, Wang A. Synthesis and characterization of chitosan-g-poly(acrylic acid)/attapulgite superabsorbent composites. CarbohydrPolym 2007; 68:367–74.

Hosseinzadeh H, Controlled release of a poorly water-soluble drug from amphiphilic and pH-sensitive chitosan-based hydrogel. Int J Pharma Bio Sci 2011;2:1–9.

Hoare TR, Kohane DS. Hydrogels in drug delivery: Progress and challenges. Polymer 2008; 49:1993–2007.

Nanjunda Reddy BH, Rauta PR, Venkatalakshimi V, Sreenivasa S. Synthesis and characterization of cloisite-30B clay dispersed poly (acrylamide/sodium alginate)/AgNp hydrogel composites for the study of BSA protein drug delivery and antibacterial activity. Mater Res Express 2018; 5. https//doi.0rg/10.1088/2053-1591/aaac4c

Kohli S, Pal A, Jain S.Preparation, characterization, and evaluation of poly (lactide– co–glycolide) microspheres for the controlled release of zidovudine. Int J Pharm PharmSci2017; 9:70-7.

Soppimath KS, Aminabhavi TM, Kulkarni AR, Rudzinski WE. Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles as drug delivery devices. J Control Release 2001; 70:1–20.

Şolpan D, Torun M, Güven O. The usability of (sodium alginate/acrylamide) semi-interpenetrating polymer networks on the removal of some textile dyes. ApplPolymSci 2008; 108:3787–95.

Sutar PB, Mishra RK, Pal K, Banthia AK. Development of pH-sensitive polyacrylamide grafted pectin hydrogel for controlled drug delivery system. J Mater Sci Mater Med 2008; 19:2247–53.

Shi XN, Wang WB, Wang AQ. Effect of surfactant on porosity and swelling behaviors of guar gum-g-poly(sodium acrylate-co-styrene)/attapulgite superabsorbent hydrogels. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2011; 88:279–86.

Shameli K, Ahmad MB, Yunus ZW, Ibrahim A, Jokar M, Darroudi M. Synthesis and characterization of silver/polylactide nanocomposites. World AcadSciEngTechnol 2010; 64:573–9.

Rhim JW, Lee SB, Hong SI. Preparation and characterization of agar/clay nanocomposite films: the effect of clay type. J Food Sci 2011; 76:40–8.

Rhim JW, Wang LF, Hong SI. Preparation and characterization of agar/silver nanoparticles composite films with antimicrobial activity. Food Hydrocoll 2013; 33:327–35.

Reddy PRS, Eswaramma S, Rao KSVK, Lee YI. Dual responsive pectin hydrogels and their silver nanocomposites: swelling studies, controlled drug delivery, and antimicrobial applications. Bull Korean ChemSoc 2014; 35:2391–9.

Alhassan SM, Qutubuddin S, Schiraldi DA. Graphene arrested in the laponite-water colloidal glass. Langmuir 2012; 28:4009–15.

Melanathuru V, Rangarajan S, Thangavel N, Comparative study of the antioxidant and anticancer activity of Alpiniacalcarata and Alpinia galangal. Int J Pharm PharmSci2017; 9:186-93.

Berridge MV, Herst PM, Tan AS. Tetrazolium dyes as tools in cell biology: New insights into their cellular reduction. Biotechnol Annu Rev 2005; 11:127–52.

Lotha R, Subramanian AS, Muthuraman MS.Silver nanoparticles from medicinally important euphorbia cyathophoraextract: biosynthesis, characterization, and anticancer activity. Asian J Pharm Clin Res2018; 11:154-6.

Fatal error: Call to a member function getGalleyLabel() on null in /home/innowar1/public_html/journals/cache/t_compile/%%38^38D^38D7420B%%article.tpl.php on line 189