PERFORMANCE OF GLUCOMANNAN-ALGINATE COMBINATION AS A pH SENSITIVE EXCIPIENT OF VITAMIN C ENCAPSULATION USING GELATION METHOD

  • DYAH HESTI WARDHANI Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. Soedarto, SH, Tembalang-Semarang, Indonesia
  • HERI CAHYONO Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. Soedarto, SH, Tembalang-Semarang, Indonesia
  • NITA ARYANTI Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. Soedarto, SH, Tembalang-Semarang, Indonesia

Abstract

Objective: This research aimed to develop pH-sensitive vitamin C encapsulation using a combination of biodegradable glucomannan and alginate as an excipient.


Methods: Gelation of the excipient was developed by dropping the matrix into the CaCl2 solution to obtain beads. Various ratios of glucomannan-alginate (1:0, 1:1, 1:3, 3:1 and 0:1, g/g), vitamin C concentrations (1, 3 and 5% of total excipient) and excipient preparation methods (mixed glucomannan-alginate matrix, glucomannan beads coated with alginate and alginate beads coated with glucomannan) were selected as variables. Entrapment efficiency of encapsulation and the release of vitamin C were determined at pH 1.2 and 6.8 which represent the pH of the stomach and the small intestine liquid, respectively.


Results: Encapsulation of 3% vitamin C using 1:1 (g/g) glucomannan-alginate showed the most efficient matrix. This ratio also had lower released of vitamin C in pH 1.2 compared to that in pH 6.8. Coating the glucomannan bead with alginate showed better ability in encapsulating vitamin C. Combination excipient, as well as the addition of the vitamin C, increased the peak absorbance of the functional groups. The surface morphology of the encapsulation bead depended on the preparation method.


Conclusion: An equal ratio of glucomannan and alginate (1:1, g/g) which encapsulated 3% vitamin C showed the most efficient encapsulation as well as lower released vitamin C in pH 1.2 compared to that in pH 6.8. Higher efficiency was observed in encapsulating vitamin C using glucomannan which was coated with alginate.

Keywords: Alginate, Biodegradable polymer, Encapsulation, Excipient, Glucomannan, Matrix, pH-sensitive, Vitamin C

Author Biography

DYAH HESTI WARDHANI, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. Soedarto, SH, Tembalang-Semarang, Indonesia

Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering

References

1. Alishahi A, Mirvaghefi A, Tehrani MR, Farahmand H, Shojaosadatic SA, Dorkoosh FA, et al. Shelf life and delivery enhancement of vitamin C using chitosan nanoparticles. Food Chem 2011;126:935-40.
2. Cho Y, Kim JT, Park HJ. Size-controlled self-aggregated N-acyl chitosan nanoparticles as a vitamin C carrier. Carbohydr Polym 2012;88:1087-92.
3. Gao X, Chen L, Xie J, Yin Y, Chang T, Duan Y, et al. In vitro controlled release of vitamin C from Ca/Al layered double hydroxide drug delivery system. J Mater Sci Eng C 2014;39:56-60.
4. European Food Safety Authority (ESFA). Scientific opinion on dietary reference values for vitamin C. EFSA J 2013;3418:1-68.
5. McConnell EL, Fadda HM, Basit AW. Gut instincts: explorations in intestinal physiology and drug delivery. Int J Pharm 2008;364:213-26.
6. Zhang C, Chen J, Yang FQ. Konjac glucomannan, a promising polysaccharide for OCDDS. Carbohydr Polym 2014;104:175-81.
7. Jeganathan B, Prakya V. Preparation and evaluation of floating extended release matrix tablet using combination of polymethacrylates and polyethylene oxide polymers. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:584-92.
8. Rojas J, Ciro Y, Zapata S. Chitosan as a potential microencapsulation carrier for ascorbic acid stabilization in heterodisperse systems. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:69-72.
9. Liu W, Tian M, Kong y, Lu J, Li N, Han J. Multilayered vitamin C nanoliposomes by self-assembly of alginate and chitosan: long-term stability and feasibility application in mandarin juice. LWT 2017;75:608-15.
10. Gao S, Nishinari K. Effect of deacetylation rate on gelation kinetics of konjac glucomannan. Colloids Surf B 2004;38:241-59.
11. Alonso Sande M, Teijeiro D, Remunan Lopez C, Alonso MJ. Glucomannan, a promising polysaccharide for bio-pharmaceutical purposes. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2009;72:453-62.
12. Wang K, He Z. Alginate-konjac glucomannan-chitosan beads as a controlled release matrix. Int J Pharm 2002;244:117-26.
13. Desai KG, Liu C, Park HJ. Characteristics of vitamin C encapsulated tripolyphosphate-chitosan microspheres as affected by chitosan molecular weight. J Microencap 2006;23:79-90.
14. Jackson JA, Wong K, Krier C, Riordan HD. Screening for vitamin C in the urine: Is it clinically significant. J Orthomolecular Med 2005;20:259-61.
15. Naidu KA. Vitamin C in human health and disease is still a mystery? An overview. Nutr J 2003;2:1-10.
16. Yang D, Yuan Y, Wang L, Wang X, Mu R, Pang J, et al. A review on konjac glucomannan gels: microstructure and application. Int J Mol Sci 2017;18:2250-68.
17. Bastos DS, Araujo KGL, Leao MHMR. Ascorbic acid retaining using a new calcium alginate-capsule based edible film. J Microencapsulation 2009;26:97-103.
18. Wardhani DH, Hapsari FD, Suryana KM, Aryanti N, Cahyono H. Physicochemical properties of glucomannan-alginate as vitamin c excipient. Evergreen 2018;5:6-10.
19. Bhujbal SV, Paredes Juarez GA, Niclou SP, Vos PD. Factors in?uencing the mechanical stability of alginate beads applicable for immunoisolation of mammalian cells. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2014;37:196-208.
20. Mohamed HN, Mustafa S, Fitrianto A, Manap YA. Optimization and characterization of calcium alginate/konjac glucomannan beads as an oral protein drug delivery system. Int J Curr Pharm Clin Res 2015;5:94-105.
21. Zhen M, Jie P, Mei Ling L, Bing Qing X, Han C, Jing Ling C. Quantum mechanical analysis of sodium alginate effect on the konjac glucomannan. Chin J Struct Chem 2015;34:1187-96.
22. Lotfipour F, Mirzaeei S, Maghsoodi M. Evaluation of the effect of CaCl2 and alginate concentrations and hardening time on the characteristics of lactobacillus acidophilus loaded alginate beads using response surface analysis. Adv Pharm Bull 2012;2:71-8.
23. Hamed S, Ayob FA, Alfatama M, Doolaanea AA. Enhancement of the immediate release of paracetamol from alginate beads. Int J Appl Pharm 2017;9:47-51.
24. Ahmad Z, Khuller GK. Alginate-base sustained release drug delivery system for tuberculosis. Exp Opin Drug Delivery 2008;5:1323-34.
25. Liang H, Ye T, Zhou B, Li J, He L, Li Y, et al. Fabrication of gastric ?oating controlled release tablet based on konjac glucomannan. Food Res Int 2015;72:47-53.
26. Chua M, Chan K, Hocking TJ, Williams PA, Perry CJ, Baldwin TC. Methodologies for the extraction and analysis of konjac glucomannan from corms of Amorphophallus konjac K. Koch. Carb Pol 2012;87:2202–10.
27. Wardhani DH, Nugroho F, Muslihudin, Aryanti N. Application of response surface method on purification of glucomannan from Amorphophallus oncophyllus by using 2-propanol. Sci Study Res: Chem Chem Eng Biotech Food Ind 2016;17:63-74.
28. Huang H, Grün IU, Ellersieck M, Clarke AD. Measurement of total sodium alginate in restructured fish products using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. EC Nutr 2017;11:33-45.
29. Gomez Ordonez E, Ruperez P. FTIR-ATR spectroscopy as a tool for polysaccharide identification in edible brown and red seaweeds. Food Hydrocol 2011;25:1514-20.
30. Wang Y, Mortimer M, Chang CH, Holden PA. Alginic acid-aided dispersion of carbon nanotubes, graphene, and boron nitride nanomaterials for microbial toxicity testing. Nanomaterials 2018;8:1-22.
Statistics
22 Views | 18 Downloads
How to Cite
WARDHANI, D. H., CAHYONO, H., & ARYANTI, N. (2019). PERFORMANCE OF GLUCOMANNAN-ALGINATE COMBINATION AS A pH SENSITIVE EXCIPIENT OF VITAMIN C ENCAPSULATION USING GELATION METHOD. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 11(2), 185-192. https://doi.org/10.22159/ijap.2019v11i2.28519
Section
Original Article(s)