Gamal M. Zayed, Gina S. El-feky


Objective: Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been synthesized and functionalized with chitosan alkanethiol polyethylene glycol as a renal targeting ligand (CS-PEG-AlkSH-GNPs) and finally loaded with insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) for selectively and effectively treating acute renal failure.
Methods: In this study, GNPs were prepared and characterized using transmission electron microscopy, photon correlation spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES). The surface of the GNPs was further decorated using synthesized CS-PEG-Alk-SH and IGF-I. IGF-I loaded CS-PEG-ALK-SH-GNP were characterized for their growth factor loading capacity, particle size, zeta potential and dispersion stability. In vitro release profile and bioactivity of IGF-I from IGF-I loaded CS-PEG-AlkSH-GNPs were assessed using cell culture technique. Biological distribution, pharmacokinetic investigation and toxicity study of IGF-I loaded CS-PEG-AlkSH-GNPs were carried out using experimental animals.
Results: The size of GNPs was less than 50 nm with a surface charge of about -45 mV. Coating GNPs with CS-PEG-Alk-SH acquired the particles high in vitro stability in 5 M NaCl and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The assembly’s bioactivity was tested on cell culture and the released IGF-I was found to maintain a bioactivity equivalent to its released percentage. When tested on mice, IGF-I loaded CS-PEG-ALK-SH-GNP reached a concentration of 60% in 6 h time in the kidneys with an elimination half-life higher than that of the control GNPs indicating efficient renal residence and targeting processes. The system was proved nontoxic.
Conclusion: CS-PEG-AlkSH-GNPs could represent an efficient tool for the targeted delivery of growth factors and other biomolecules to the kidneys.


Functionalized gold nanoparticles, renal failure, growth hormone, cell culture, in vivo study


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