HUMIC SUBSTANCES AS A POTENT BIOMATERIALS FOR THERAPEUTIC AND DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM-A REVIEW
Efficiency of therapeutic compounds could be enhanced by encapsulation and covalent attachments to a biomaterial carrier. Complex formation with humic substances is valuable techniques to improve bioactivity of natural products. Fractal structures of humic substances also have adjacent carboxyl and hydroxyl groups. Along with molecular bonding property, reduction-oxidation and association-dissociation capacities of humic substances are considered this as a biomaterial for transform, other molecules, and substances. Immune system responses of humic acid stimulates in the human body. However, pharmaceutical importance of humic substances, demands on evidenced efficacy and a clearly defined chemical composition of the preparations used. Toxicological safety standards also have to be evaluated. This review summarises the application of humic substances as pharmaceuticaly important biomaterial. Research on this zone opened up an application for humic substances in pharmacogonasy.
2. Manna S, Kollabathula J. Formulation and evaluation of ibuprofen controlled release matrix tablets using its solid dispersion. Int J Appl Pharm 2019;11. DOI:https://doi.org/10.22159/ijap.2019v11i2.30503
3. Kulkarni V, Patil BS, Hariprasnna RC, Borgaonkar PA, Hogada MG, Rabbani G. Formulation and development of fast dissolving meloxicam tablets by solid dispersion technique: for the effective treatment of dental pain. Int J Curr Pharma Res 2010;2:82-5.
4. Syed IA, Mangamoori LN, Rao YM. Formulation and characterization of matrix and triplelayer matrixtablets for oral controlled drug delivery. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2010;2:623.
5. Shukla M, Rathore P, Jain A, Nayak S. Enhanced solubility study of glipizide using different solubilization techniques. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2010;2:46-8.
6. Kumar GA, Choudhary RK, Chaitanya CH. Enhancement of solubility and dissolution rate of irbesartan by solid dispersion technique. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2011;4:36-40.
7. Stevenson F, Humus chemistry: genesis, composition, reactions. 2nd ed. Wiley and Sons, New York; 1994.
8. Aiken GR. Humic substances in soil, sediment, and water: geochemistry, isolation, and characterization. Wiley-Interscience, New York; 1985.
9. Acharya SB, Frotan MH, Goel RK, Tripathi SK, Das PK. Pharmacological actions of shilajit. Indian J Exp Biol 1988;26:775-7.
10. Wilson E, Rajamanickam GV, Dubey GP, Klose P, Musial F, Saha FJ, et al. Review on shilajit used in traditional Indian medicine. J Ethnopharmacol 2011;136:1-9.
11. Ishiwatari R. Macromolecular material (humic substance) in the water column and sediments. Mar Chem 1992;39:151-66.
12. Saito B, Seckler MM. Alkaline extraction of humic substances from peat applied to organic-mineral fertilizer production. Braz J Chem Eng 2014;31:675-82.
13. Millero FJ, Sohn ML. Composition of the major components of seawater. Chemical Oceanography. CRC Press Inc. United Stated of America; 1992. p. 59-113.
14. Yuan S. Application of fulvic acid and its derivatives in the fields of agriculture and medicine 1st ed; 1993.
15. Klocking R, Helbig B. Medical aspects and applications of humic substances. Biopolymers for medical and pharmaceutical applications. WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and C. KGaA. Weinheim; 2005. p. 3-16.
16. Wallerius JG, Gyllenborg GA. Agriculturae fundamenta chemical; 1761.
17. Archard FW. Crell’s Chemical Analysis 2,391. Cited in Stevenson, FJ Humus Chemistry; 1982.
18. Carrasco Gallardo C, Guzman L, Maccioni RB. Shilajit: a natural phytocomplex with potential procognitive activity. Int J Alzheimer’s Dis 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/ 674142
19. Marin Hum. Soil mineral depletion. In: Optimum nutrition, Autumn; 2006.
20. Schnitzer M. Binding of humic substances by soil mineral colloids. In Interactions of soil minerals with natural organics and microbes. SSSA Special Publication 1986;17:77-101.
21. Mirza MA. Future of humic substances as pharmaceutical excipient. Pharma Sci Anal Res J 2018;1:180004.
22. Cao S. Fulvic acid information asthma and lung infections on the rise in all age groups. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2000;84:227-33.
23. Yinzhang C. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, Humic Acid; 1991.
24. Yuan, Shenyuan. Fulvic Acid, 4 1988. In: Application of fulvic acid and its derivatives in the fields of agriculture and medicine, 1st ed; 1993.
25. Pant K, Gupta A, Gupta P, Ashraf A, Yadav A, Venugopal S. Anti-proliferative and anticancer properties of fulvic acid on hepatic cancer cells. J Clin Exp Hepatol 2015;5:S2.
26. Hseu YC, Chen SC, Chen YL, Chen JY, Lee ML, Lu FJ, et al. Humic acid-induced genotoxicity in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using comet and sister chromatid exchange assay. J Hazard Mater 2008;153:784–91.
27. Aykac A, Becer E, Okcanoglu TB, Guvenir M, Suer K, Vatansever S. The cytotoxic effects of humic acid on human breast cancer cells. In: Multidisciplinary digital publishing institute proceedings; 2018;2:1565.
28. Ghosal S, Singh SK, Kumar Y, Srivastava R, Goel RK, Dey R, et al. Anti?ulcerogenic activity of fulvic acids and 4??methoxy?6?carbomethoxybiphenyl isolated from shilajit. Phytother Res 1988;2:187-91.
29. Klocking R, Sprossig M. Antiviral properties of humic acids. Cell Mol Life Sci 1972;28:607-8.
30. Schols D, Wutzler P, Klöcking R, Helbig B, De EC. Selective inhibitory activity of polyhydroxycarboxylates derived from phenolic compounds against human immunodeficiency virus replication. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1991;4:677-85.
31. Neyts J, Snoeck R, Wutzler P, Cushman M, Klöcking R, Helbig B, et al. Poly (hydroxy) carboxylates as selective inhibitors of Cytomegalovirus and Herpes simplex virus replication. Antivir Chem Chemother 1992;3:215-22.
32. Schneider J, Weis R, Maenner C, Kary B, Werner A, Stubert BJ, et al. Inhibition of HIV-1 in cell culture by synthetic humate analogues derived from hydroquinone: mechanism of inhibition. Virology 1996;218:389-95.
33. Taugner B. Experimental studies in animals on a sodium humate salicylic acid bath. Arzneimittel Forschung 1963; 13:329-33.
34. Schewe C, Klöcking R, Helbig B, Schewe T. Lipoxygenase-inhibitory action of antiviral polymeric oxidation products of polyphenols. Biomed Biochim Acta 1991;50:299-305.
35. Junek R, Morrow R, Schoenherr JI, Schubert R, Kallmeyer R, Phull S, et al. Bimodal effect of humic acids on the LPS-induced TNF-? release from differentiated U937 cells. Phytomedicine 2009;16:470-6.
36. Chien SJ, Chen TC, Kuo HC, Chen CN, Chang SF. Fulvic acid attenuates homocysteine-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human monocytes. BMC Complement Altern Med 2015;15:61.
37. Yamada P, Isoda H, Han JK, Talorete TP, Yamaguchi T, Abe Y. Inhibitory effect of fulvic acid extracted from canadian sphagnum peat on chemical mediator release by RBL-2H3 and KU812 cells. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2007;71:1294-305.
38. Klocking HP, Hoffmann A, Fareed J. Influence of hyper sulfatedlactobionic acid amides on tissue plasminogen activator release. In: Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis, Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc; 1991;17:379-84.
39. Klöcking R. Humic substances as potential therapeutics. Senesi N, Miano TM. (eds). Amsterdam, Elsevier; 1994.
40. Klöcking HP, Helbig B, Klocking R. Antithrombin activity of synthetic humic acid-like polymers derived from o-diphenolic starting compounds. Trombosis Haemostasis Supp; 1999. p. 299–300.
41. Klocking R, Helbig B. Medical aspects and applications of humic substances. In Biopolymers for medical and pharmaceutical applications. WILEY-VCH Verlag Gmb H, C KGaA Weinheim; 2005. p. 3-16.
42. Jackson WR. Humic, fulvic and microbial balance: organic soil conditioning. Evergreen, Colorado: Jackson Research Center; 1993.
43. Lu FJ, Tseng SN, Li ML, Shih SR. In vitro anti-influenza virus activity of synthetic humate analogues derived from protocatechuic acid. Arch Virol 2002;147:273-84.
44. Khilko SL, Efimova IV, Smirnova OV. Antioxidant properties of humic acids from brown coal. Solid Fuel Chem 2011;45:367-71.
45. Avvakumova NP, Gerchikov AY, Khairullina VR, Zhdanova AV. Antioxidant properties of humic substances isolated from peloids. Pharm Chem J 2011;45:192.
46. Tarasova AS, Stom DI, Kudryasheva NS. Antioxidant activity of humic substances via bioluminescent monitoring in vitro. Environ Monit Assess 2015;187:89.
47. Zhao Y, Paderu P, Delmas G, Dolgov E, Lee MH, Senter M, et al. Carbohydrate-derived fulvic acid is a highly promising topical agent to enhance healing of wounds infected with drug-resistant pathogens. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2015;79:S121-9.
48. Gandy JJ, Snyman JR, Van Rensburg CE. Randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of carbohydrate-derived fulvic acid in topical treatment of eczema. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 2011; 4:145.
49. Martin BC, Warram JH, Krolewski AS, Soeldner JS, Kahn CR, Bergman RN. Role of glucose and insulin resistance in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus: results of a 25-year follow-up study. Lancet 1992;340:925-9.
50. Donath MY, Shoelson SE. Type 2 diabetes as an inflammatory disease. Nat Rev Immunol 2011;11:98.
51. Winkler J, Ghosh S. Therapeutic potential of fulvic acid in chronic inflammatory diseases and diabetes. J Diabetes Res 2018. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/5391014
52. Vetvicka V, Garcia Mina JM, Proctor M, Yvin JC. Humic acid and glucan: protection against liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride. J Med Food 2015;18:572-7.
53. Mirza MA, Ahmad N, Agarwal SP, Mahmood D, Anwer MK, Iqbal Z. Comparative evaluation of humic substances in oral drug delivery. Res Pharm Sci 2011;1:16-26.
54. Vermeer AW. Interactions between humic acid and hematite and their effects on metal ion speciation. Doctoral Dissertation; 1996. p. 1-199.
55. Helal AA, Murad GA, Helal AA. Characterization of different humic materials by various analytical techniques. Arab J Chem 2011;4:51-4.
56. Yamauchi M, Katayama S, Todoroki T, Watanable T. Total synthesis of fulvic acid. J Chem Soc Chem Comm 1984;23:1565-6.
57. Agarwal SP, Anwer MK, Aqil M. Complexation of furosemide with fulvic acid extracted from shilajit: a novel approach. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2008;34:506-11.
58. Agarwal SP, Ansari SH, Karmarkar RR. Enhancement of the dissolution rate of ketoconazole through a novel complexation with fulvic acid extracted from shilajit. Asian J Chem 2008;20:879.
59. Agarwal SP, Ansari SH, Karmarkar RR. Enhancement of the dissolution rate of ketoconazole through a novel complexation with humic acid extracted from shilajit. Asian J Chem 2008;20:380.
60. Javed S, Kohli K, Ahsan W. Solubility and dissolution enhancement of Silymarin with the fulvic acid carrier. Int J Drug Dev Res 2016;8:9-14.
61. Anwer M, Ahmed M, Ansari M, Khan T. Inclusion complex of solid state aspirin with fulvic acid: dissolution, permeability, stability and preliminary pharmacological studies. J Biol Sci 2013;13:203-312.
62. Khilko SL, Semenova RG. Interaction of humic acid salts with drug preparations. Solid Fuel Chem 2016;50:390-4.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.