EFFECT OF ACTIVE CHARCOAL BAMBOO GEL (ACTIVATED CHARCOAL BAMBUSEAE) TOWARD DENTAL DISCOLORISATION
Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the activated charcoal gel on tooth discoloration.
Methods: This study was experimental laboratories and used a Pre-post-test only control group design. This study was conducted at the Pharmacy Laboratory of the State Islamic University of Alauddin Makassar and the Oral Biology Laboratory, Faculty of Dentistry, Hasanuddin University. The total samples were 30 maxillary incisors. The test tool used was Shade Guide VITAPAN® Classical. Data analysis using Wilcoxon Test and Kruskal Test Wallis.
Results: Based on the results of the Wilcoxsondan test, the Kruskal Wallis test showed changes in tooth color after the application of bamboo charcoal gel at concentrations of 7.5%, 15%, and 30% with p values <0.05.
Conclusion: There was a significant change in tooth color before and after the application of bamboo activated charcoal gel.
2. Desai N, Sahana S, Kb J, Shravani S. The effect of a chemical activator on tooth bleaching with two different concentrations of carbamide peroxide: an in vitro study. Int J App Dent Sci 2018;4:286-9.
3. Nagelberg RH. A review of tooth whitening services. Academy Gen Dent; 2015. p. 1-11.
4. Majeed A, Farooq I, Grobler SR. Tooth-bleaching?: a review of the efficacy and adverse effects of various tooth whiteng products. J Coll Physic Surg Pakistan 2015;9:1-5.
5. Oliveira RP De, Costa J, Baia P, Eliane M, Ribeiro S. Influence of time intervals between bleaching procedures on enamel microhardness and surface roughness abstract. Open Dent J 2018;55:555-9.
6. Jyothi M, Girish K, Mounika A, Jyothirmayi BS, Bhargav K, Sonam A, et al. Case report conservative management of discolored anterior teeth-a case series. Scholars J Dental Sci 2016;3:58-62.
7. Raju GS, Keerthi M, Nandan SK, Rao T, Kulkarni P. Cementum as an age determinant: a forensic view. J Forensic Dent Sci 2016;8:175.
8. Presoto CD, Bortolatto JF, Petrucelli P, Carvalho F De, Trevisan TC. Case report new parameter for in-office dental bleaching; 2016. p. 16-20.
9. Garg N, Garg A. Textbook of operative dentistry. 2nd ed. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publisher; 2013. p. 459–71.
10. Torabinejad M, Waltom RE. Endodontics: principles and practice. St. Louis: Elsevier; 2002.
11. Mulky IH, Rania N, Kasuma N, Tsabitha SF. The influence of tomato juice as an alternative treatment to whiten the teeth. Ind Scholars J 2014;1:1-2.
12. Scheid RC, Weiss G. Tooth anatomy woelfel. Jakarta: EGC; 2013. p. 11-2.
13. Yingying D, Qin C, Huang X. Enzyme and alkali-aided ECF bleaching of kraft bamboo pulp. BioResources 2015;10:7372-85.
14. Fitriana RA, Yulistyarini T, Soegianto A, Pertanian JB, Pertanian F. Relationship of bamboo germplasm based on bamboo morphologic characteristic. Purwodadi Botanic Garden Collection 2017;5:812-20.
15. Suwarto, Octavianty, Hermawati. Top 15 plantation plants. 1st ed. Jakarta: Penebar Swadaya; 2014. p. 276.
16. Basri E, Pari R. Physical properties and drying of five types bamboos. J Penelitian Hasil Hutan 2017;35:1-13.
17. Arsad E. Processing technology and benefits of bamboo. J Riset Industri Hasil Hutan 2015;7:45-52.
18. Ekayanti NW. Bamboo biodiversity (bambusa spp) in penglipuran tourism village, bangli regency. J Bakti Saraswati 2016;5:132-5.
19. Rofi A. Strategy of increasing coffee' farmers income in boafeo village, maukaro subdistrict. Ende Regency NTT 2018;32:77-83.
20. Yunus M, Daud M. Effectiveness of bamboo preservation for materials for lake Tempe floating houses in South Sulawesi. J Permukiman 2015;10:118-29.
21. Alkhatib AJ, Alzaailay K. The appropriate use of activated charcoal in pharmaceutical and toxicological approaches. Biomed J Sci Tech Res 2018;5:3-5.
22. Hambali. Distance of biodiesel producing fences. Niaga Swadaya; 2006. p. 103-4.
23. Winarno. Coconut tree of Life. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka; 2014. p. 99-103.
24. Pertiwi UI, Eriwati YK, Irawan B. Surface changes of enamel after brushing with charcoal toothpaste. J Phys Conf Ser 2017;884:1-9.
25. Hagemann N, Spokas K, Schmidt HP, Kägi R, Bohler MA. Activated carbon, biochar and charcoal: linkages and synergies across pyrogenic carbon’s ABCs. Water (Switzerland) 2018;10:1-19.
26. Lee J, Palaniappan K, Hwai TT. Bacterial contamination in bristles of charcoal toothbrushes versus non-charcoal toothbrushes. Can J Dent Hyg 2017;51:62-7.
27. Cooney DO. Activated charcoal. USA: Teach Service; 2016. p. 105.
28. Ghalib N, Ayuandyka U. Makassar prevalence of tooth discoloration in preschool children in Makassar. Makassar Dent J 2017;6:66-72.
29. Simmons SL. The role of the dental professional in tooth whitening; 2019. p. 1-9.
30. O'Brien F. Day one income protection for a dentist. J Irish Dent Ass; 2017. p. 62.
31. Kapadia Y, Jain V. Tooth staining: a review of etiology and treatment modalities. Acta Sci Dental Sci 2018;2:67-70.
32. Samuel AR, Thomas T. Management of sensitivity after dental bleaching. J Evid Based Dent Pract 2016;8:4857-64.
33. Lee J, Bae S. A study on the whitening effect of fruit extracts and the changes in the components of the teeth. Indian J Sci Technol 2016;9:1-7.
34. Bernardon JK, Martins V, Rauber GB, Junior M. Clinical evaluation of different desensitizing agents in home-bleaching gels. J Prosthet Dent J Prost Dent 2016;4:21-5.
35. Grossman L, Oliet S, Rio carlos del. Endodontic in practice. 11th ed. Jakarta: EGC; 1995. p. 295.
36. Almohareb T. Management of discolored endodontically treated tooth using sodium perborate. J Int Oral Health 2017;10:133-5.
37. Torabinejad M, Walton RE. Endodontic: principles and practice. St Louis: Elsevier; 1996.
38. Nomay N. Review of the mechanism of tooth whitening. J Esthet Restor Dent 2015;27:240-57.
39. Albm O, Grigoletto M, Ac B. Methods for reversing the bond strength to bleached enamel: a literature review; 2018;6:1-5.
40. Coates K. The effect of bleaching toothpastes containing blue covarine on enamel color. EC Dental Sci 2017;4:127-33.
41. Mittal R, Sood AG, Singla MG, Dhawan D. A comparative evaluation of the efficacy of commercially available bleaching agents in non?vital teeth: an in vitro study. Saudi Endodontic Journa 2015;5:33-7.
42. Goodacre CJ, Sagel PA. Dental esthetic in practice: part 3-understanding color and shade selection. ADA CERP; 2011. p. 3-8.
43. Fatimah N. In vitro comparative study of in-office and home bleaching agents on surface micro-morphology of enamel. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2016;26:9-12.
44. Rao MSR, Rathod T, Sekhar VSSK, Ch KK. Comparative evaluation of the bleaching efficacy of 16% carbamide peroxide and 30% hydrogen peroxide-an in vitro study. Indian J Mednodent Allied Sci 2016;4:82-9.
45. Li Y, Msd DDS. Stain removal and whitening by baking soda dentifrice. J Am Dent Assoc Elsevier Inc 2017;148:20-6.
46. Al Omiri MK, Nazeh AA Al, Kielbassa AM, Lynch E. Randomized controlled clinical trial on bleaching sensitivity and whitening efficacy of hydrogen peroxide versus combinations of hydrogen peroxide and ozone. Springer US; 2018. p. 1-10.
47. Fernandez E, Bortolatto J. New trends on in-office tooth bleaching. J Dental Sci Ther 2016;1:28-30.
48. Abdullah AO, Muhammed FK, Zheng B, Liu Y. An overview of extrinsic tooth bleaching and its impact on oral restorative materials. World J Dentistry 2017;8:503-10.
49. Fauziah C, Fitriyani S, Diansari V. Colour change of enamel after application ofaverrhoa bilimbi. J Dent Indonesia 2012;19:53-6.
50. Larocca J, DG, CB, JU, TY. Effectiveness of and tooth sensitivity with at-home bleaching in smokers. J Am Dent Assoc Elsevier Inc 2015;146:233-40.
51. Kurthy R. The science of whitening. USA: Venderbit; 2016. p. 7.
52. Nuhu AA. Bioactive micronutrients in office: recent analytical approaches for characterization and quantification. ISRN Nut 2014:1-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/384230
53. Edvan BT, Edison R, Same M. The influence of type and duration of roasting on the quality of Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora). J Agroindustri Perkeb 2016;4:31-40.
54. Najiyati DS. Coffee cultivation and post harvest management. Jakarta: Penebar Swadaya; 2004. p. 20-5.
55. Wahyuni E, Karim A, Anhar A. Analysis of the taste of organic arabica coffee at several altitude places and how to process it in the gayo highland. J Manaj Sumberd Lahan II 2013;2:261-9.
56. Fauziah C, Fitriyani S, Diansari V. Colour change of enamel after application of averrhoa bilimbi. J Dent Indonesia 2012;19:53-6.
57. Goodacre CJ, Sagel PA. Dental esthetic in practice: part 3-understanding color and shade selection. ADA CERP; 2011. p. 3-8.
58. Pasiga B. Biostatistics theory and computer applications. Makassar: Dua Satu Press; 2013.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.