A REVIEW ON APPLICATION OF NANOADJUVANT AS DELIVERY SYSTEM
Worldwide immunization can save millions of peoples to lives year by using the vaccines. The subunit of antigen components is manufactured which can stimulate the immune system by providing specific immunity against specific diseases. Subunit vaccines have many advantages like as high safety profile but having limited ability to provide immunogenicity. These traditional subunit vaccines activate only innate immunity, encourage cell-mediated transport of antigen to lymphoid tissues. Newly nano-adjuvants based vaccines carrier systems like liposomes, virosome, micelles, polymeric particles, protein, and peptides are developed by using various substances like viral proteins, polymer and polystyrene having immanent adjuvanticity and also provide exalted capability in manufacturing subunit vaccines. It has chromospheres substances that have various properties such as targeted, anti-damaging and caliber to lead immune reactions towards Th1 and Th2 route, which is an important feature for humoral as well as cellular immunity. The whole thing based on the carrier system, the role of nano-adjuvants, its pharmacokinetics and distribution in the body system. It has the ability to provide antigen-specific immunity to both systemic as well as mucosal by different vaccination passage. Also, the nano-adjuvants based vaccine suggested that direct targeting of antigen to improve the vaccine potency without sacrificing safety.
2. Tlaskalova Hogenova H, Tuckova L, Lodinova Zadnikova R, Stepankova R. Mucosal immunity: its role in defense and allergy. Int Arc Allergy Immunol 2002;128:77-9.
3. Reddy ST, Rehor A, Schmoekel HG, Hubbell JA, Swartz MA. In vivo targeting of dendritic cells in lymph nodes with poly(propylene sulfide) nanoparticles. J Controlled Release 2006;112:26–34.
4. Dineshkumar B, Dhanaraj SA, Santhi K, Vijayan P, Chandrasekhar R. Single-dose vaccine delivery system of tetanus toxoid formulation based on chitosan microspheres. Int J Adv Pharm Sci 2010;1:42-9.
5. Koutsonanos DG, del Pilar Martin M, Zarnitsyn VG, Sullivan SP, Compans RW, Prausnitz MR, et al. Transdermal influenza immunization with vaccine-coated microneedle arrays. Plos One 2009;4:4773-81.
6. Shankar SJ, Jasvanth Gowda BH, Akshatha RS, Basavaraj M, Mohamed R. A review on the role of nanocrystal and nanosuspension in drug delivery system. Int J Appl Pharm 2020;12:11-6.
7. Beck E, Strohmaier K. Subtyping of European foot-and-mouth disease virus strains by nucleotide sequence determination. J Virol 1987;61:1621-9.
8. Liau J, Prestidge CA, Hook S, Barnes TJ. Development of a multi-compartmental oral vaccine delivery system. ?Eur J Pceutics Bio-Pceutics 2015;97:15-21.
9. Allen PM, Matsueda GR, Evans RJ, Dunbar Jr JB, Marshall GR, Unanue ER. Identification of the T-cell and Ia contact residues of a T-cell antigenic epitope. Nature 1987;327:713-22.
10. Hidaka A, Kiyono H, Kunisawa J, Aramaki Y. Intranasal administration of cationic liposomes enhanced granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor expression and this expression is dispensable for mucosal adjuvant activity. BMC Res Notes 2018;11:472-83.
11. Dupuis M, McDonald DM, Ott G. Distribution of adjuvant MF59 and antigen gD2 after intramuscular injection in mice. Vaccine 1999;18:434–9.
12. Nicolas JF, Guy B. Intradermal, epidermal and transcutaneous vaccination: from immunology to clinical practice. Expert Rev Vaccines 2008;7:1201-4.
13. Schuch RA, Oliveira TL, Collares TF, Monte LG, RoigInda G, Dellagostin OA, et al. The use of xanthan gum as vaccine adjuvant: an evaluation of immunostimulatory potential in BALB/c mice and cytotoxicity in vitro. BioMed Res Int 2017;24:1-9.
14. Pasquale AD, Preiss S, Da Silva FT, Garçon N. Vaccine adjuvants: from 1920 to 2015 and beyond. Vaccines 2015;3:320-3.
15. Schwendener RA. Liposomes as vaccine delivery systems: a review of the recent advances. Expert Rev Vaccines 2014; 2:159-82.
16. Borges O, Borchard G, Verhoef JC, de Sousa A, Junginger HE. Preparation of coated nanoparticles for a new mucosal vaccine delivery system. Int J Pharm 2005;299:155-6.
17. Arnon R. Synthetic peptides as the basis for future vaccines. Trends Biochem Sci 1986;11:521-4.
18. Arnon R, Shapira M, Jacob CO. Synthetic vaccines. J Immunol Methods 1983;61:261-73.
19. Atassi MZ, Casali P, Atassi MZ, Casali P. Molecular mechanisms of autoimmunity. Autoimmunity 1988;41:123-32.
20. Bachmann MF, Jennings GT. Vaccine delivery: a matter of size, geometry, kinetics and molecular patterns. Nat Rev Immunol 2010;10:787–96.
21. Ada GL. What to expect of a good vaccine and how to achieve it. Vaccine 1988;6:77-9.
22. Broecker F, Gotze S, Hudon J, Dominea CK, Pereira CL, Stallforth P, et al. Synthesis, liposomal formulation, and immunological evaluation of a minimalistic carbohydrate-?-galcer vaccine candidate. J Med Chem 2018;61:4918–27.
23. Smirnov D, Schmidt JJ, Capecchi JT, Wightman PD. Vaccine adjuvant activity of 3M-052: an imidazoquinoline designed for local activity without systemic cytokine induction. Vaccine 2011;29:5434–42.
24. Shi S, Hickey AJ. PLGA microparticles in respirable sizes enhance an in vitro T cell response to recombinant mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen TB10. 4-Ag 85B. Pharm Res 2010;27:350-60.
25. Pulendran B, Ahmed R. Immunological mechanisms of vaccination. Nat Immunol 2011;12:509–17.
26. Moon JJ, Suh H, Li AV, Ockenhouse CF, Yadava A. Enhancing humoral responses to a malaria antigen with nanoparticle vaccines that expand Tfh cells and promote germinal center induction. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2012;109:1080–5.
27. Kumar P, Nene AG, Punia S, Kumar M, Abbas Z. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of cuo nanoparticles. Int J Appl Pharm 2020;12:17-20.
28. Mohapatra SS. Mucosal gene expression vaccine: a novel strategy for respiratory syncytial virus. Pediatr Infect Dis 2003;21:S100-3.
29. Hubbell JA, Thomas SN, Swartz MA. Materials engineering for immunomodulation. Nature 2009;462:449–60.
30. Pardakhty A, Moazeni E. Nano-niosomes in drug, vaccine and gene delivery: a rapid overview. Nanomedicine 2013;1:1-12.
31. Rathore P, Swami G. Virosomes: a novel vaccination technology. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2012;3:3591-7.
32. Amselem S, Alving CR, Domb AJ. Polymeric biodegradable lipospheres™ as vaccine delivery systems. Polym Adv Technol 1993;3:351-7.
33. Mohapatra SS. Mucosal gene expression vaccine: a novel vaccine strategy for the respiratory syncytial virus. Pediatric Infectious Disease J 2003;22:S100-S104.
34. Zaks K, Jordan M, Guth A, Sellins K, Kedl R, Izzo A, Dow S. Efficient immunization and cross-priming by vaccine adjuvants containing TLR3 or TLR9 agonists complexed to cationic liposomes. J Immunol 2006;176:7335-45.
35. Aiswarya MU, Keerthana R, Revathy BM, Lakshmi VS, Sreeja CN. Cryptosomes: a revolutionary breakthrough in novel drug delivery. Int J Appl Pharm 2019;11:7-13.
36. Sporri R, Reis-e-Sousa C. Inflammatory mediators are insufficient for full dendritic cell activation and promote the expansion of CD4+T cell populations lacking helper function. Nat Immunol 2005;6:163–70.
37. Supersaxo A, Hein WR, Steffen H. Effect of molecular weight on the lymphatic absorption of water-soluble compounds following subcutaneous administration. Pharm Res 1990; 7:167–9.
38. Ali AA, McCrudden CM, McCaffrey J, McBride JW, Cole G, Dunne NJ, et al. DNA vaccination for cervical cancer; a novel technology platform of RALA mediated gene delivery via polymeric microneedles. Nanomed: Nanotechnol Biol Med 2017;13:921-32.
39. Mildner A, Jung S. Development and function of dendritic cell subsets. Immunity 2014;40:642–6.
40. O’Hagan DT, Ott GS, De Gregorio E, Seubert A. The mechanism of action of MF59-an innately attractive adjuvant formulation. Vaccine 2012;30:4341–8.
41. Cabral H, Kotaoka K. Multifunctional nano assembles of block copolymers for future cancer therapy. Sci Technol Adv Mater 2010;10:1-9.
42. Garçon N, Chomez P, Van Mechelen M. Glaxo-smithkline adjuvant systems in vaccines: concepts, achievements and perspectives. Expert Rev Vaccines 2007;6:723–9.
43. Cabral H, Kataoka K. Multifunctional nanoassemblies of block copolymers for future cancer therapy. Sci Technol Adv Mater 2010;11:104-13.
44. Tacken PJ, de Vries IJM, Torensma R, Figdor CG. Dendritic-cell immunotherapy: from ex vivo loading to in vivo targeting. Nat Rev Immunol 2007;7:790–802.
45. Luo M, Samandi LZ, Wang Z, Chen ZJ, Gao J. Synthetic nanovaccines for immunotherapy.J Controlled Release 2017;263:200–10.
46. Qu W, Li N, Yu R, Zuo W, Fu W. Cationic DDA/TDB liposome as a mucosal vaccine adjuvant for uptake by dendritic cells in vitro induces potent humoural immunity. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2018;46:S852-S960.
47. Ssemaganda A, Giddam AK, Zaman M, Skwarczynski M, Toth I, Stanisic DI, et al. Induction of plasmodium-specific immune responses using liposome-based vaccines. Front Immunol 2019;10:231-42.
48. Manolova V, Flace A, Bauer M, Schwarz K, Saudan P, et al. Nanoparticles target distinct dendritic cell populations according to their size. Eur J Immunol 2008;38:1404–13.
49. Joshi VB, Geary SM, Salem AK. Biodegradable particles as vaccine antigen delivery systems for stimulating cellular immune responses. Hum Vaccines Immunother 2013;9:2584-90.
50. Da Costa Martins R, Gamazo C, Sanchez Martinez M, Barberan M, Penuelas I. Conjunctival vaccination against Brucella ovis in mice with mannosylated nanoparticles. J Controlled Release 2012;162:553–60.
51. Chackerian B, Lowy DR, Schiller JT. Conjugation of a self-antigen to papillomavirus-like particles allows for efficient induction of protective. J Clin Invest 2001;108:415–23.
52. Pasare C, Medzhitov R. Control of B-cell responses by Toll-like receptors. Nature 2005;438:364–8.
53. Karshalm KS, Anderson P, Peril Y, Christenseen D. Liposomal vaccine delivery. Drug Delivery 2011;8:505-19.
54. Joshi M, Lata S, Kanwar P, Mishra T. Application of nanostructures in antimicrobial therapy. Int J Appl Pharm 2018;18:11-25.
55. Pardakhty A, Moazenil E. Nano-niosomes in drug vaccine and gene delivery: a rapid overview. Nanomedicine 2012;1:1-6.
56. Link A, Zabel F, Schnetzler Y, Titz A, Brombacher F, et al. Innate immunity mediates follicular transport of particulate but not soluble protein antigen. J Immunol 2012;188:3724–33.
57. Pintar A, Carugo O, Pongor S. CX, an algorithm that identifies protruding atoms in proteins. Bioinformatics 2005;18:980-4.
58. Donnelly RF. Vaccine delivery systems. Hum Vaccines Immunother 2017;13:17-26.
59. Carino GP. Vaccine delivery. Mathiowitz E. editor. Encyclopedia of Controlled. Drug Delivery 1999;4:996-7.
60. Dhakal S, Cheng X, Salcido J, Renu S, Bondra K, Lakshmanappa YS, et al. Liposomal nanoparticle-based conserved peptide influenza vaccine and monosodium urate crystal adjuvant elicit a protective immune response in pigs. Int J Nanomed 2018;13:6699–15.
61. Oyewumi MO, Kumar A, Cui Z. Nano-microparticles as immune adjuvants: correlating particle sizes and the resultant immune responses. Expert Rev Vaccines 2010;9:1095-107.
62. Lee S, Nguyen MT. Recent advances of vaccine adjuvants for infectious diseases. Immune Network 2015;15:51-7.
63. Sexton A, Whitney PG, Chong SF, Zelikin AN, Johnston AP. A protective vaccine delivery system for in vivo T cell stimulation using nanoengineered polymer hydrogel capsules. Acs Nano 2009;3:3391-400.
64. Bekiaris V, Persson EK, Agace WW. Intestinal dendritic cells in the regulation of mucosal immunity. Immunol Rev 2014;12:86-101.
65. Kato LM, Kawamoto S, Maruya M, Fagarasan S. The role of the adaptive immune system in regulation of gut microbiota. Immunol Rev 2014;21:67-75.
66. Kalra N, Dhanya V, Saini V, Jeyabalan G. Virosomes: as a drug delivery carrier. Am J Adv Drug Delivery 2013;1:29-35.
67. Napolitani G, Rinaldi A, Bertoni F, Sallusto F, Lanzavecchia A. Selected toll-like receptor agonist combinations synergistically trigger a T helper type 1-polarizing program in dendritic cells. Nat Immunol 2005;6:769–76.
68. Caminschi I, Shortman K. Boosting antibody responses by targeting antigens to dendritic cells. Trends Immunol 2012;33:71–7.
69. Moyer TJ, Zmolek AC, Irvine DJ. Beyond antigens and adjuvants: formulating future vaccines. J Clin Invest 2016;126:7999-808.
70. Gupta RK, Chang AC, Siber GR. Biodegradable polymer microspheres as vaccine adjuvants and delivery systems. Dev Biol Stand 1998;92:63-8.
71. Ramamurthy SK, Shidhar C. Parthenium mediated synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles and its characterization. Int J Appl Pharm 2019;11:113-6.
72. Arnon R. Peptides as immunogens: prospects for synthetic vaccines. In Peptides as Immunogens. Springer Berlin Heidelberg 1986;5:1-2.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.