GUM KARAYA-G-POLY (ACRYLAMIDE): MICROWAVE ASSISTED SYNTHESIS, OPTIMISATION AND CHARACTERISATION
Objective: The objective of the present research is to formulate acrylamide grafted Karaya gum by using microwave-assisted grafting method and optimisation is performed by using Box behnken design.
Methods: The extracted mucilage of gum Karaya was modified into grafted gum Karaya by using a microwave-assisted method. Acrylamide was used as monomer and ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) is used as redox initiator. The experimental design for optimisation include three independent variables gum concentration (X1), ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) amount (X2) and irradiation time (X3) while the dependent variables were % yield (Y1), % grafting (Y2) and % grafting efficiency (Y3). The optimised formulation was characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis.
Results: After optimisation the formulation with acrylamide amount 5 g, ceric ammonium nitrate amount 200 mg and irradiation time of 2 min was selected as optimized formulation. The optimised formulation has percentage grafting of 853.5%, with grafting efficiency of 77.59%.
Conclusion: The application of box behnken design for optimisation was performed successfully in microwave assisted grafting of acrylamide on karaya gum.
2. Mbuna JJ, Mhinzi GS. Evaluation of gum exudates from three selected plant species from Tanzania for food and pharmaceutical applications. J Sci Food Agric 2003;83:142-6.
3. Medina GAL, Ventura J, Ceniceros ACL, Ascacio JA, Villa DB, Aguilar CN. Karaya Gum: general topics and applications. Macromolecules 2013;9:111-6.
4. Bhardwaj TR, Kanwar M, Lal R, Gupta A. Natural gums and modified natural gums as sustained-release carriers. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2000;26:1025-38.
5. Kumar A, Singh K, Ahuja M. Xanthan-g-poly(acrylamide): Microwave-assisted synthesis, characterization and in vitro release behavior. Carbohydr Polym 2009;76:261-7.
6. Singh V, Kumar P, Sanghi R. Use of microwave irradiation in grafting modification of polysaccharides: a review. Prog Polym Sci 2012;37:340-64.
7. Setia A, Kumar R. Microwave-assisted synthesis and optimization of Aegle marmelose-g-poly(acrylamide): release kinetic studies. Int J Biol Macromol 2014;65:462-70.
8. Singh P, Laryia SK. Modified kondagogu gum as matrix-forming material for sustained release. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2016;8:82-7.
9. Sen G, Mishra S, Jha U, Pal S. Microwave initiated synthesis of polyacrylamide grafted guar gum(GG-g-PAM)-characterizations and application as matrix for controlled release of 5-amino salicylic acid. Int J Biol Macromol 2010;47:164-70.
10. Das R, Pal S. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose grafted with polyacrylamide: application in controlled release of 5-amino salicylic acid. Colloids Surf B 2013;110:236-41.
11. Mishra A, Pal S. Polyacrylonitrile grafted okra mucilage: a renewable reservoir to polymeric materials. Carbohydr Polym 2007;68:95-100.
12. Mishra A, Malhotra AV. Graft copolymers of xyloglucan and methyl methacrylate. Carbohydr Polym 2012;87:1899-904.
13. Mishra S, Rani GU, Sen G. Microwave initiated synthesis and application of polyacrylic acid grafted carboxymethyl cellulose. Carbohydr Polym 2012;87:2255-62.
14. Yadav S, Sharma PK, Goyal NK. Comparative study of mucilage extracted from seeds of Cassia fistula and gum karya. Adv Biol Res 2015;9:177-81.
15. Ghosh S, Sen G, Jha U, Pal S. Novel biodegradable polymeric flocculant based on polyacrylamide grafted tamarind kernel polysaccharide. Bioresour Technol 2010;101:9638-44.
16. Abbas G, Hanif M, Khan MA. pH-responsive alginate polymeric rafts for controlled drug release by using box behnken response surface design. Des Monomers Polym 2017;20:1-9.
17. Sharma GN, Kumar CHP, Shrivastava B, Kumar B. Optimization and characterization of chitosan-based Nanoparticles containing methylprednisolone using box behnken design for treatment of crohn’s disease. Int J Appl Pharm 2020;12:12-23.
18. Nandi G, Changder A, Ghosh LK. Graft co-polymer of polyacrylamide tamarind seed gum: synthesis, characterization and evaluation of flocculating potential in peroral paracetamol suspension. Carbohydr Polym 2019;215:213-25.
19. Vijan V, Kaity S, Biswas S, Issac J, Ghosh A. Microwave-assisted synthesis and characterization of acrylamide grafted gellan, application in drug delivery. Carbohydr Polym 2012;90:496-506.
20. Kaity S, Issac J, Kumar PM, Bose A, Wong TW, Ghosh A. Microwave-assisted synthesis of acrylamide grafted locust bean gum and its application in drug delivery. Carbohydr Polym 2013;98:1083-94.
21. Singh AV, Nath LK, Guha M. Microwave-assisted synthesis and characterization of Phaseolus aconitifolius starch-g-polyacrylamide. Carbohydr Polym 2011;86:872-6.
22. Mahto D, Rani P, Mishra S, Sen G. Microwave-assisted synthesis of polyacrylamide grafted soya peptone and its application as water-soluble adhesive. Ind Crops Prod 2014;58:251-8.
23. Rani P, Sen G, Mishra S, Jha U. Microwave-assisted synthesis of polyacrylamide grafted gum ghatti and its application as flocculent. Carbohydr Polym 2012;89:275-81.
24. Mishra S, Sen G, Rani GU, Sinha S. Microwave-assisted synthesis of polyacrylamide grafted agar (Ag-g-PAM) and its application as flocculent for wastewater treatment. Int J Biol Macromol 2011;49:591-8.
25. Siraj S, Sudhakar P, Rao US, Sekharnath KV, Rao KC, Subha MCS. Interpenetrating polymer network microspheres of poly (vinyl alcohol)/methyl cellulose for controlled release studies of 6-thioguanine. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:101-6.
26. Singh V, Tiwari A, Tripathi DN, Sanghi R. Microwave-assisted synthesis of guar-g-polyacrylamide. Carbohydr Polym 2004;58:1-6.
27. Singh V, Tripathi DN, Tiwari A, Sanghi R. Microwave synthesized chitosan-graft-poly(methylmethacrylate): an ef?cient Zn2+ion binder. Carbohydr Polym 2006;65:35-41.
28. Kulkarni RV, Boppana R, Mohan GK, Mutalik S, Kalyane NV. pH-responsive interpenetrating network hydrogel beads of poly(acrylamide)-g-carrageenan and sodium alginate for intestinal targeted drug delivery: synthesis, in vitro and in vivo evaluation. J Colloid Interface Sci 2012;367:509-17.
29. Singh AV, Nath LK. Evaluation of microwave-assisted grafted sago starch as controlled release polymeric carrier. Int J Biol Macromol 2013;60:62-8.
30. Silva DAD, Paula RCM, Feitosa JPA. Graft copolymerization of acrylamide onto cashew gum. Eur Polym J 2007;43:2620-9.
31. Sakhare MS, Rajput HH. Polymer grafting and applications in pharmaceutical drug delivery systems-a brief review. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017;10:59-63.
32. Tiwari A, Singh V. Microwave-induced synthesis of electrical conducting gum acacia-graft-polyaniline. Carbohydr Polym 2008;74:427-34.
33. Mundargi RC, Patil SA, Aminabhavi TM. Evaluation of acrylamide-grafted-xanthan gum copolymer matrix tablets for oral controlled delivery of antihypertensive drugs. Carbohydr Polym 2007;69:130-41.
34. Casas M, Ferrero C, Paz MVD, Castellanos MRJ. Synthesis and characterization of new copolymers of ethyl methacrylate grafted on tapioca starch as novel excipients for direct compression matrix tablets. Eur Polym J 2009;45:1765-76.
35. Rao MRP, Gaikwad SR, Shevate PM. Synthesis and characterization of a novel mucoadhesive derivative of psyllium seed polysaccharide. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;9:166-75.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.