The DETERMINATION OF AMILORIDE VIA QUENCHED CONTINUOUS FLUORESCENCE OF AZO DYE USING LOW-PRESSURE MERCURY LAMP TUBE (UV-LIGHT) AND MULTI SOLAR CELLS AT 2 X 90° AS A DETECTORS

  • HUDA MUAYAD NAFEA Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
  • NAGHAM S. TURKEY Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq

Abstract

Objective: The aim of the method was to develop a novel, simple and rapid fluorometric method determination of Amiloride (AMD) in pure form and pharmaceutical drugs via fluorescence measurements.


Methods: The method depends on fluorescence quenching of 2H-chromene azo dye (2-(4-nitrophenyl)-N-(4-(phenyldiazenyl)-2H-chromen-4-amine) upon adding Amiloride (AMD) using homemade ISNAG 2 X 90° multi solar cell via low-pressure mercury lamp at two significant wavelengths 184.9 and 253.7 nm combined with continuous flow injection analysis.


Results: Under the optimized conditions, the fluorescence quenching linear working range and percentage linearity (r2%) was (0.03-8 mmol/l) and 98.78 %, respectively. The suggested method was effectively applied to the determination of AMD in two different pharmaceutical drugs and compared with the classical method (UV-vis spectrophotometry at λ=540 nm).


Conclusion: The proposed and established method is simple, direct, and efficient. The statistical comparison results using a t-test at 95% confidence interval that was applied to compare the new and classical method showed there are no significant differences between the two methods.

Keywords: Amiloride, 2H-chromene azo dye, Fluorescence quenching, Flow injection analysis

References

1. Pulgarrin JAM, Molina AA, Lopez PF. Direct determination of amiloride in urine using isopotential fluorimetry. Analyst 1997;122:247–52.
2. Bull MB, Laragh JH. Amiloride, a potassium-sparing natriuretic agent. Circulation 1968;37:45-53.
3. Alon U, Chan JCM. Hydrochlorothiazide-Amiloride in the treatment of congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Am J Nephrol 1985;5:9-13.
4. Katzung BG. Basic and clinical pharmacology. 10th ed. USA: McGraw-Hill Medical; 2006.
5. Kirchlechner V, Koller DY, Seidl R, Waldhauser F. Treatment of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride. Arch Dis Child 1999;80:548-52.
6. Parker JD, Parker AB, Farrell B, Parker JO. Effects of diuretic therapy on the development of tolerance to nitroglycerin and exercise capacity in patients with chronic stable angina. Circulation 1996;93:691-6.
7. Sussex BA, Campbell NR, Raju MK, Mckay DW. The antianginal efficacy of isosorbide dinitrate therapy is maintained during diuretic treatment. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1994;56:229-34.
8. Ortiga Barrales P, Pellerano G, Vazquez FA, Molina Diaz A. Rapid and sensitive determination of amiloride by cation exchange preconcentration and direct solid–phase UV detection. Anal Lett 2002;35:1491-504.
9. Lotfy HM, Saleh SS. Recent development in ultraviolet spectrophotometry through the last decade (2006-2016): a review. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8:40-56.
10. Ferraro MCF, Castellano PM, Kaufman TS. Chemometric determination of amiloride hydrochloride, atenolol, hydrochlorothiazide and timolol maleate in synthetic mixtures and pharmaceutical formulations. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2004;34:305-14.
11. El-Gindy A, Emara S, Mostafa A. HPLC and chemometric-assisted spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of atenolol, amiloride hydrochloride and chlorthalidone. Farmaco 2005;60:269–78.
12. Shaikh JS, Rao NN. Simultaneous estimation and forced degradation studies of amiloride hydrochloride and furosemide in pharmaceutical dosage form using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:215-21.
13. Issa YM, Shoukry AF, Ibrahim H, Mohamed SK. Atomic emission spectrometric determination of antazoline, hydralazine, amiloride, thiamine and quinine based on formation of ion associates with ammonium reineckate. Anal Lett 1994;27:731-42.
14. Martin ME, Hernandez OM, Jimenez AI, Arias JJ, Jimenez F. Partial least-squares method in analysis by differential pulse polarography. Simultaneous determination of amiloride and hydrochlorothiazide in pharmaceutical preparations. Anal Chim Acta 1999;381:247-56.
15. Nisal A, Trivedy K, Mohammad H, Panneri S, Gupta S, Lele A, et al. Uptake of azo dyes into silk glands for production of colored silk cocoons using a green feeding approach. ACS Sustainable Chem Eng 2014;2:312-7.
16. Kofie W, Dzidzoramengor C, Adosraku RK. Synthesis and evaluation of antimicrobial properties of azo dyes. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;7:398-401.
17. Sahoo J, Paidesetty SK. Medicinal interest of azo-based organic compounds: a review. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9 Suppl 1:33-9.
18. Shao J. A novel colorimetric and fluorescence anion sensor with a urea group as binding site and a coumarin group as signal unit. Dyes Pigm 2010;87:272-6.
19. Blackburn OA, Coe BJ. Syntheses, electronic structures, and dichroic behavior of dinuclear cyclopalladated complexes of push?pull azobenzenes. Organometallics 2011;30:2212-22.
20. Zhao Y, Ikeda T. Smart light-responsive materials: azobenzene-containing polymers and liquid crystals. 1st ed. Hoboken (NJ): Wiley; 2009.
21. Bogdanov AV, Vorobiev AK. Photo-orientation of azobenzene-containing liquid-crystalline materials by means of domain structure rearrangement. J Phys Chem B 2013;117:13936-45.
22. Li T, Yang Z, Li Y, Liu Z, Qi G, Wang B. A novel fluorescein derivative as a colorimetric chemosensor for detecting copper (II) ion. Dyes Pigm 2011;88:103-8.
23. Banerjee IA, Yu L, Matsui H. Application of host?guest chemistry in nanotube-based device fabrication: photochemically controlled immobilization of azobenzene nanotubes on patterned ?-CD monolayer/au substrates via molecular recognition. J Am Chem Soc 2003;125:9542-3.
24. Griffiths J, Millar V, Bahra GS. The influence of chain length and electron acceptor residues in 3-substituted 7-N, N-diethylaminocoumarin dyes. Dyes Pigm 1995;28:327?39.
25. Nishizono N, Oda K, Ohno K, Minami M, Machida M. Synthesis of 3-Aryl-7 diethylaminocoumarin derivatives: reaction with isatin and their fluorescent properties. Heterocycles 2001;55:1897-906.
26. Nafea HM, Al-Kawaz AMN. Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial, DNA cleavage and fluorescent activity of metal ion (II) coordinate with 2h-chromene azo novel ligand. Int J Res Pharm Sci 2020;11:1953-60.
27. Turkie NS, Abd-Alrazack HF. Newly developed method for determination indomethacin using potassium hexacyanoferrate (III) by using ISNAG fluorimeter homemade via CFIA. J Global Pharma Technol 2018;10:447-60.
28. Lakowicz JR. Principles of fluorescence spectroscopy. 3rd ed. New York: Springer; 2006.
29. Smith JG. Organic chemistry. 1st ed. New York: MC Graw-Hill; 2006.
30. Neves MMPS, Bobes Limenes P, Perez Junquera A, Gonzalez Garcia MB, Hernandez Santos D, Fanjul Bolado P. Miniaturized analytical instrumentation for electrochemiluminescence assays: a spectrometer and a photodiode-based device. Anal Bioanal Chem 2016;408:7121-7.
31. Kulkarni AA, Vaidya IS. Flow injection analysis: an overview. J Crit Rev 2015;2:19-24.
32. Komaitis E, Vasiliou E, Kremmydas G, Georgakopoulos DG, Georgiou C. Development of a fully automated flow injection analyzer implementing bioluminescent biosensors for water toxicity assessment. Sensors 2010;10:7089-98.
33. Al-Awadi NST. A novel instrumental method for the determination of cobalt (II) ion using NAG-ADF-300-2 analyser, via the formation of a precipitating reaction product through on-line long distance (300 mm) and short path length (2 mm) chasing of sample segment. J Global Pharma Technol 2019;11:504-15.
34. Miler JC, Miller JN. Statistics and chemometrics for analytical chemistry. 6st ed. UK: Pearson Education Limited; 2010.
35. Al-Awadie NST, Alamri MHA. A new mode for an on-line determination of amiloride in pure and pharmaceutical preparation using CFIA with homemade ayah 3SBGRx3-3D solar cell microphtometer analyzer. Iraqi J Sci 2014;55:1137-52.
36. Bluman AG, Elementary statistics. 3rd ed. New York: WCB/MC Graw-Hill; 1997.
Statistics
33 Views | 20 Downloads
Citatons
How to Cite
NAFEA, H. M., & TURKEY, N. S. (2020). The DETERMINATION OF AMILORIDE VIA QUENCHED CONTINUOUS FLUORESCENCE OF AZO DYE USING LOW-PRESSURE MERCURY LAMP TUBE (UV-LIGHT) AND MULTI SOLAR CELLS AT 2 X 90° AS A DETECTORS. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 12(5), 211-218. https://doi.org/10.22159/ijap.2020v12i5.38268
Section
Original Article(s)