FATTY ACID PROFILE AND MONTHLY VARIATION OF TOTAL FATTY ACID AND LIPID OBTAINED FROM THE OIL OF STRIPED SNAKEHEAD CHANNA STRIATA
Objective: This project was taken up for a period of two years to assess the nutritional capacity of Channa striata, which is consumed as a cheap, nutritious food in most parts of India and East Asian countries by determining its fatty acid profile and monthly variation of lipid and fatty acid in its most edible part.
Methods: Total lipid was extracted by conventional methods laid down by Folch and his associates and was then saponified to obtain the total fatty acid. The fatty acid mixture thus obtained was then converted to their methyl esters and was subjected to Gas Chromatograph using a flame ionization detector to detect the individual fatty acids.
Results: Our investigation shows that the total lipid and fatty acid in the edible part dip to its minimum in the month of July, as one should expect during the breeding season because the stored lipid, as well as fatty acids, are mobilized to the gonads for their development during the reproductive season which is monsoon. C. striata contain more of MUFAs (64.34%) and PUFAs (16.21%), which are more beneficial to human health than SFAs (12.5%), which are most hazardous to health.
Conclusion: C. striata can definitely be marked as a cheap, nutritious food source, with its share of negativity. Our work will surely enlighten future works on this species in the spheres of preservation, organized farming, and maintaining the biodiversity of the place where it thrives.
2. Arita M, Bianchini F, Aliberti J, Sher A, Chiang N, Hong S, et al. Stereochemical assignment, anti-inflammatory properties, and receptor for the omega-3 lipid mediator resolving E1. J Exp Med 2005;201:713-22.
3. Emma W. Health oily fish dementia boosts queried. BBC News Retrieved; 2009.
4. Connor WE. Importance of n-3 fatty acids in health and disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71 Suppl:171S-5S.
5. Calder PC. Long-chain fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: further evidence and insights. Nutr Res 2004;24:761-72.
6. Carroll KK. Biological effect of fish oils in relation to chronic diseases. Lipids 1986;21:731-2.
7. Harris WS. Omega-3 fatty acids, thrombosis and vascular disease. Int Congr Ser 2004;1262:380-3.
8. Abdel Moneim A, Mahmoud B, Mahmoud R. The beneficial effects of fish oil supplementation on hyperlipidemic and hypothyroid albino rats. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2015;8:324-9.
9. Abozid MM, Zein H, El-halem AA. Effect of common carp and African catfish oils on rats fed on a high-fat diet. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018;10:96-101.
10. Jensen CL, Maude M, Anderson RE, Heird WC. Effect of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation of lactating women on the fatty acid composition of breast milk lipids and maternal and infant plasma phospholipids. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:292S-9S.
11. Kinsella JE. Summary of needs, in “Seafoods and fish oils in human health and disease.” New York: Pub Marcel Dekker Inc; 1987. p. 234.
12. Laugharne JD, Mellor JE, Peet M. Fatty acids and schizophrenia. Lipids 1996;31 Suppl:S163-S5.
13. Leaf A, Kang JX, Xiao Y, Billman G. The clinical prevention of sudden cardiac death by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the mechanism of the prevention of arrhythmias by n-3 fish oils. Circulation 2003;107:2646–52.
14. Makrides M, Gibson RA. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid requirements during pregnancy and lactation. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71 Suppl:307S-11S.
15. Simopoulos A. Omega-3 fatty acids in health and disease and in growth and development. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54:438-63.
16. Sati A, Bhatt P. Review on therapeutic effects mediated by omega-3 fatty acids in Alzheimer’s disease. Asian J Pharm Clin 2018;11:54-8.
17. Baie SH, Sheikh KA. The wound healing properties of Channa striatus-cetrimide cream-wound contraction and glycosaminoglycan measurement. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;73:15-30.
18. Mat Jais AM, McCulloh R, Croft K. Fatty acid and amino acid composition in haruan as a potential role in wound healing. Gen Pharmacol 1994;25:947–50.
19. Wee KL. Snakeheads–their biology and culture. In: X Muir, X Roberts. (Eds.) Recent advances in aquaculture. Colorado, USA: Westview Press Boulder; 1982. p. 180-211.
20. Mat Jais AM, Dambisya YM, Lee TL. Antinociceptive activity of Channa striatus (haruan) extracts in mice. J Ethnopharmacol 1997;57:125–30.
21. Zakaria ZA, Somchit MN, Sulaiman MR, Mat Jais AM. Preliminary investigation on the antinociceptive activity of haruan (Channa striatus) fillet extract with various solvent system. Pak J Biol Sci 2004;7:1706-10.
22. Marufi I, Ali K, Sedemen IA, Purwanto P, Khoiri A. Channa striata (Ikan Gabus) extract and the acceleration of tuberculosis treatment: a true experimental study. Hindawi Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases; 2019. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/8013959.
23. Zuraini A, Somchit MN, Solihah MH, Goh Y, Arifah K, Zakaria MS, et al. Fatty acid and amino acid composition of three local Malaysian Channa spp. fish. Food Chem 2006;97:674-8.
24. Aliyu Paiko M, Hashim R, Chong ASC, Yogarajah L, El-Sayed AFM. Influence of different sources and levels of dietary protein and lipid on the growth, feed efficiency, muscle composition and fatty acid profile of snakehead Channa striatus (Bloch, 1793) fingerling. Aquacult Res 2010;41:1365-76.
25. Molla MR, Asaduzzaman AKM, Rashid MMA, MeftahUddin, Biswas S, Salim Uddin. Nutritional status, characterization and fatty acid composition of oil and lecithin isolated from freshwater fish shoul (Channa striata). Int J Nutr Food Sci 2016;5:9-15.
26. Jaya Ram A, Fuad F, Zakeyuddin MS, Sah A. Muscle fatty acid content in selected freshwater fish from bukit merah reservoir, perak, Malaysia. Trop Life Sci Res 2018;29:103-17.
27. Putri A, Rohman A, Riyanto S. Comparative study of fatty acid profiles in patin (pangasius micronemus) and gabus (channa striata) fish oil and its authentication using FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics. Int J Appl Pharm 2019;11:55-60.
28. Ladniya V, Moghal MM, Pradhan V. Fatty acid composition of oil extracted from murrel fish (Channa striata) from Marathwada region. Haya: Saudi J Life Sci 2018;3:22-5.
29. Gill HS, Weatherley AH. Protein, lipid and caloric contents of bluntnose minnow, Pimephales notatus rafinesque, during growth at different temperatures. J Fish Biol 1984;25:491-500.
30. AOAC. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. Vol. 1. 16th edn. AOAC International, Arlington; 1995.
31. Folch J, Lees M, Sloane Stanley G. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 1957;226:497-509.
32. Atchison GJ. Fatty acid levels in developing brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) eggs and fry. J Fish Res Board Can 1975;32:2513-5.
33. Farkas T, Csengeri I. Biosynthesis of fatty acids by the carp, Cyprinus carpio L., in relation to environmental temperature. Lipids 1976;11:401-7.
34. Farkas T, Csengeri I, Majoros F, Olah J. Metabolism of fatty acids in fish. II. Biosynthesis of fatty acids in relation to diet in the carp, Cyprinus carpio linnaeus 1758. Aquaculture 1978;14:57–65.
35. Dave G, Johanson Sjobeek ML, Larsson A, Lewander K, Lidman U. Metabolic and hematological effects of starvation in the European eel. Anguilla anguilla L.-III. Fatty acid composition. Comp Biochem Physiol 1976;53:509-15.
36. Agren J, Mute P, Hann?nen O, Harranen J, Pentila I. Seasonal variations of lipid fatty acids of Boreal freshwater fish species. Comp Biochem Physiol 1987;88B:905-9.
37. Dutta H, Das AB, Farkas T. Role of environmental temperature in seasonal changes of fatty acid composition of hepatic lipid in an air-breathing Indian teleost, Channa punctatus (Bloch). Comp Biochem Pysiol 1985;81(B):341-7.
38. Y?lmaz O, Konar V, Celik S. Elaz?g Hazar golundeki capoeta capoeta umbla’n?n di?i ve erkek bireylerinde baz? dokular?n?n total lipid ve yag asidi bile?imleri. Biyokim Derg 1995;20:31-42.
39. Y?lmaz O, Konar V, Celik S. Elaz?g Hazar Golundeki capoeta capoeta umbla (Heckel, 1843)’n?n (Siraz) total lipid ve ya? asidi miktar?n?n aylara ve mevsimlere göre de?i?imi. Turk J Biol 1996;20:245-57.
40. Carroll KK. Biological effect of fish oils in relation to chronic diseases. Lipids 1986;21:731-2.
41. Kinsella JE. Summary of needs, in “Seafoods and fish oils in human health and disease” Pub. Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York; 1987.
42. Castell JD, Sinnhuber RO, Wales JH, Lee DJ. Essential fatty acids in the diet of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii): growth, feed conversion and some gross deficiency symptoms. J Nutr 1972;102:77-86.
43. Parameswaran S, Murugesan VK. Observations on the hypophysation of murrels (Ophiocephalidae). Hydrobiologia 1976;50:81-7.
44. Iguchi K, Okumura N, Usui S, Sajiki H, Hirota K, Hirano K. Myristoleic acid, a cytotoxic component in the extract from serenoa repens, induces apoptosis and necrosis in human prostatic LNCaP cells. Prostate 2001;47:59-65.
45. Yang ZH, Miyahara H, Hatanaka A. Chronic administration of palmitoleic acid reduces insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation in KKAy mice with genetic type 2 diabetes. Lipids Health Dis 2011;10:120.
46. Tardy AL, Morio B, Chardigny JM, Malpuech Brugere C. Ruminant and industrial sources of trans-fat and cardiovascular and diabetic diseases. Nutr Res Rev 2011;24:111-7.
47. Henry GE, Momin RA, Nair MG, Dewitt DL. Antioxidant and cyclooxygenase activities of fatty acids found in food. J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:2231-4.
48. Bradberry JC, Hilleman DE. Overview of omega-3 fatty acid therapies. Pharm Ther 2013;38:681-91.
49. Caramia G. The essential fatty acids omega-6 and omega-3: from their discovery to their use in therapy. Minerva Pediatr 2008;60:219-33.
50. Tallima H, El Ridi R. Arachidonic acid: physiological roles and potential health benefits-a review. J Adv Res 2017;11:33–41.
51. Food Standards Australia New Zealand. Food Standards Australia New Zealand, Canberra; 2003.
52. Dumancas G, Murdianti BS, Lucas EA. Arachidonic acid: dietary sources and general functions. Biochemistry research trend series, nova science publishers, incorporated; 2013.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.