In-vitro evaluation of lectinized cisplatin bearing liposomes system

In-vitro evaluation of lectinized cisplatin bearing liposomes system

  • Rahul Tiwari Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dr. Harisingh Gour University, Sagar, Madhya Pradesh-470003, India
  • Kaliyaperumal Viswanathan Translational Research Platform for Veterinary Biologicals (TRPVB), Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai 600 051, Tamil Nadu, India.
  • Suresh Prasad Vyas Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dr. Harisingh Gour University, Sagar, Madhya Pradesh-470003, India
  • Vandana Soni Dr.H.S.Gour University, Sagar


Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent and mechanism anti-cancer drug loaded liposomes using wheat germ agglutinin as a guiding molecule.

Method: For the drug loaded liposome synthesis, the thin film hydration method was used and the drug cisplatin was loaded during the synthesis and followed by the surface modification using wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) lectin.  The developed system was confirmed based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), particle size (PS) analyzer, polydispersity index and Zeta Potential analyzer.

Results: The TEM based studies indicated that the size of the liposome was 200 ± 5 nm.  The Ex- vivo study was conducted using the MCF-7 cancer cell line. The drug release indicated that the developed liposome release the drug in sustained manner.

Conclusion: The MTT studies indicated that the drug molecules were initially get delivered to the inside the cell. This formulation offered new simple approach and effectively kill the cells via targeting the nucleus. 

Keywords: Liposomes; Wheat germ agglutinin; Cisplatin; MCF-7 cells; Nucleus targeting


[1] Z.H. Siddik, Cisplatin: mode of cytotoxic action and molecular basis of resistance, Oncogene, 22 (2003) 7265-7279.
[2] P.T. Wong, S.K. Choi, Mechanisms of drug release in nanotherapeutic delivery systems, Chemical reviews, 115 (2015) 3388-3432.
[3] S. Dasari, P.B. Tchounwou, Cisplatin in cancer therapy: molecular mechanisms of action, European journal of pharmacology, 740 (2014) 364-378.
[4] Y. Mechref, M.V. Novotny, Structural investigations of glycoconjugates at high sensitivity, Chemical reviews, 102 (2002) 321-370.
[5] D.R. Finlay, D.D. Newmeyer, T.M. Price, D.J. Forbes, Inhibition of in vitro nuclear transport by a lectin that binds to nuclear pores, The Journal of cell biology, 104 (1987) 189-200.
[6] A. Bangham, M.M. Standish, J.C. Watkins, Diffusion of univalent ions across the lamellae of swollen phospholipids, Journal of molecular biology, 13 (1965) 238-IN227.
[7] A. Bogdanov, A. Klibanov, V. Torchilin, Protein immobilization on the surface of liposomes via carbodiimide activation in the presence of N?hydroxysulfosuccinimide, FEBS letters, 231 (1988) 381-384.
[8] S.P. Damari, D. Shamrakov, M. Varenik, E. Koren, E. Nativ-Roth, Y. Barenholz, O. Regev, Practical aspects in size and morphology characterization of drug-loaded nano-liposomes, International journal of pharmaceutics, 547 (2018) 648-655.
[9] E. Spyratou, E.A. Mourelatou, M. Makropoulou, C. Demetzos, Atomic force microscopy: a tool to study the structure, dynamics and stability of liposomal drug delivery systems, Expert opinion on drug delivery, 6 (2009) 305-317.
[10] S.A. Tatulian, Structural characterization of membrane proteins and peptides by FTIR and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, Lipid-protein interactions, Springer2013, pp. 177-218.
[11] D.W. Fry, J.C. White, I.D. Goldman, Rapid separation of low molecular weight solutes from liposomes without dilution, Analytical biochemistry, 90 (1978) 809-815.
[12] M. Basotra, S.K. Singh, M. Gulati, Development and validation of a simple and sensitive spectrometric method for estimation of cisplatin hydrochloride in tablet dosage forms: application to dissolution studies, ISRN Analytical Chemistry, 2013 (2013).
[13] F.N. Velazquez, M. Miretti, M.T. Baumgartner, B.L. Caputto, T.C. Tempesti, C.G. Prucca, Effectiveness of ZnPc and of an amine derivative to inactivate Glioblastoma cells by Photodynamic Therapy: an in vitro comparative study, Scientific reports, 9 (2019) 3010.
[14] B. Surnar, K. Sharma, M. Jayakannan, Core–shell polymer nanoparticles for prevention of GSH drug detoxification and cisplatin delivery to breast cancer cells, Nanoscale, 7 (2015) 17964-17979.
[15] P. Khare, A. Jain, N.K. Jain, V. Soni, S.K. Jain, Glutamate-conjugated liposomes of dopamine hydrochloride for effective management of parkinsonism's, PDA journal of pharmaceutical science and technology, 63 (2009) 372-379.
[16] L. Geng, K. Osusky, S. Konjeti, A. Fu, D. Hallahan, Radiation-guided drug delivery to tumor blood vessels results in improved tumor growth delay, Journal of controlled release, 99 (2004) 369-381.
[17] K. Maruyama, Intracellular targeting delivery of liposomal drugs to solid tumors based on EPR effects, Advanced drug delivery reviews, 63 (2011) 161-169.
[18] Z. Wang, Y. Tian, H. Zhang, Y. Qin, D. Li, L. Gan, F. Wu, Using hyaluronic acid-functionalized pH stimuli-responsive mesoporous silica nanoparticles for targeted delivery to CD44-overexpressing cancer cells, International journal of nanomedicine, 11 (2016) 6485.
[19] R.J. Mudakavi, A.M. Raichur, D. Chakravortty, Lipid coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles as an oral delivery system for targeting and treatment of intravacuolar Salmonella infections, RSC Advances, 4 (2014) 61160-61166.
[20] S. Bonnin, F. Besson, M. Gelhausen, S. Chierici, B. Roux, A FTIR spectroscopy evidence of the interactions between wheat germ agglutinin and N?acetylglucosamine residues, FEBS letters, 456 (1999) 361-364.
21 Views | Downloads
How to Cite
Tiwari, R., Viswanathan, K., Vyas, S. P., & Soni, V. (2020). In-vitro evaluation of lectinized cisplatin bearing liposomes system . International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 12(6). Retrieved from
Original Article(s)