• Hymavathi Muppalla Acharya Nagarjuna University
  • kiranmayi peddi Acharya Nagarjuna University


Field experiments were conducted at Agricultural University, Rajendra Nagar, Hyderabad, Telanagana to study the dissipation kinetics of Carbendizam, Monocrotophos, Spiromesifen, Acephate and Quinalphos in okra fruit. All the pesticide residues with one test dose at two spray i.e., first spray at flowering stage and second spray after an interval of ten days was carried out. The samples drawn at specific periods were analyzed by liquid chromatography and mass spectrophotometry (LC-MS/MS). The initial deposit of Carbendizam, Monocrotophos, Spiromesifen, Acephate and Quinalphos in okra was found to be 2.239, 2.586, 2.401, 1.39, 0.78 mg/kg respectively. More than 98 % of Caebendizam, Spirofesifin, Acephate and Quinolphos dissipated after 15 days and monocrotophos was dissipated after 10 days. These results are helpful in setting up maximum residual limit (MRLs) of these pesticides in okra in India. A decontamination study was conducted to evaluate quality of okra pods by reducing the residues of Carbendizam, Monocrotophos, Spiromesifen, Acephate and Quinalphos by using different processes such as 2% salt solution, Acetic acid, Biowash, Butter milk, Cooking, Drying, Formula1(T7), Frying, Lemon water, Sodium bicarbonate, Tamarind  water and Tap Water. From the results, it could be recommended that cooking suits best for almost all of the pesticide residues. Sodium bicarbonate and 2% salt solution are the best methods for decontamination after cooking. The decontamination values of Frying and formula 1 seems to be almost same. After these two methods biowash thought to be the method of choice.

Keywords: Okra, Biowash, Tamarind water, Dissipation, Decontamination, Pesticide residues

Author Biography

Hymavathi Muppalla, Acharya Nagarjuna University

Department of Biochemistry


1. Oguntibeju OO, Truter EJ, Esterhuyse AJ. The role of fruit and vegetable consumption in human health and disease prevention. 2013.
2. Sardana HR. Integrated pest management in vegetables. In: Training manual-2, Training on IPM for Zonal Agricultural Research Stations. 2001; 105- 118.
3. Kumari B, Kumar R, Madan VK, Rajvir S, Jagdeep S, Kathpal TS. Magnitude of pesticidal contamination in winter vegetables from Hisar, Haryana. Environ Monit Assess 2003; 87: 311-18.
4. Kumari B, Madan VK, Kumar R, Kathpal TS. Monitoring of seasonal vegetables for pesticide residues. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 2002; 74: 263-70.
5. Wentzell J, Cassar M, Kretzschmar D. Organophosphate-Induced changes in the PKA regulatory function of Swiss cheese/NTE lead to behavioural deficits and neurodegeneration. PLoS ONE 2014; 9(2): 87526.
6. Rauh VA, Perera FP, Horton MK, Whyatt RM, Bansal R, et al. Brain anomalies in children exposed prenatally to a common organophosphate pesticide. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2012;109: 7871–7876.
7. Janssens L, Stoks R. Fitness Effects of Chlorpyrifos in the Damselfly Enallagma cyathigerum Strongly Depend upon Temperature and Food Level and Can Bridge Metamorphosis. PLoS ONE 2013; 8(6): 68107.
8. Canesi L, Negri A, Barmo C, Banni M, Gallo G, et al., The Organophosphate Chlorpyrifos Interferes with the Responses to 17b-Estradiol in the Digestive Gland of the Marine Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. PLoS ONE 2011; 6(5): 19803.
9. Sasikala C, Jiwal S, Rout P, Ramya M. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by bacterial consortium isolated from agriculture soil. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 2012; 28(3):1301.
10. Trunnelle KJ, Bennett DH, Tulve NS, Clifton MS, Davis MD, et al. Urinary pyrethroid and chlorpyrifos metabolite concentrations in northern California families and their relationship to indoor residential insecticide levels, Part of the study of use of products and exposure related behaviour (SUPERB). Environmental Science and Technology 2014; 48 (3): 1931–1939.
11. Watts M. Chlorpyrifos as a Possible Global Persistent Organic Pollutant. Pesticide Network North America, Oakland, CA, USA. 2012; 17.
12. Popp J, Peto K, Nagy J. Pesticide productivity and food security. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 2013; 33: 243–255.
13. Zhang NN, Liu CF, Yang F, Dong SL, Han ZJ. Resistance mechanisms to chlorpyrifos and F392W mutation frequencies in the acetylcholine esterase ace1allele of field populations of the tobacco whitefly, Bemisia tabaci in China. Journal of Insect Science 2012; 12:41.
14. Ouyang Y, Chueca P, Scott SJ, Montez GH, Grafton-Cardwell EE. Chlorpyrifos Bioassay and Resistance Monitoring of San Joaquin Valley California Citricola Scale Populations. Journal of Economic Entomology. 2010; 103(4): 1400–1404.
15. Garau VL, Angioni A, Aguilera Del Real A, Russo MT, Cabras P. Disappearance of azoxystrobin, cyprodinil, and fludioxonil on tomato in a greenhouse. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2002; 50: 1929–1932.
16. Cabras P, Meloni M, Manca MR, Pirisi FM, Cabitza F, et al., Pesticide residues in lettuce. 1. Influence of the cultivar. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 1988; 36: 92–95.
17. Wang M, Zhang Q, Cong L, Yin W, Wang M. Enantioselective degradation of metalaxyl in cucumber, cabbage, spinach and pakchoi. Chemosphere. 2014;95: 241–256.
18. Sun H, Xu J, Yang S, Liu G, Dai S. Plant uptake of aldicarb from contaminated soil and its enhanced degradation in the rhizosphere. Chemosphere. 2004; 54: 569–574.
19. Fan S, Zhang F, Deng K, Yu C, Liu S, et al. Spinach or amaranth contains highest residue of metalaxyl, fluazifop-p-butyl, chlorpyrifos, and lambda-cyhalothrin on six leaf vegetables upon open field application. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2013; 61: 2039–2044.
20. Montemurro N, Grieco F, Lacertosa G, Visconti A. Chlorpyrifos decline curves and residue levels from different commercial formulations applied to oranges. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2002; 50: 5975–5980.
21. Cabras P, Meloni M, Gennari M, Cabitza F, ubeddu M Pesticide residues in lettuce. 2. Influence of formulations. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 1989; 37: 1405–1407.
22. Angioni A, Schirra M, Garau VL, Melis M, Tuberoso CIG, Cabras P. Residues of azoxystrobin, fenhexamid and pyrimethanil in strawberry following field treatments and the effect of domestic washing. Food Additives and Contaminants. 2004; 21: 1065-1070.
23. Ling Y, Wang H, Yong W, Zhang F, Sun L, Yang ML, Wu YN, Chu XG. The effects of washing and cooking on chlorpyrifos and its toxic metabolites in vegetables. Food Control. 2011; 22: 54-58.
24. Chandra S, Kumar M, Mahindrakar AN, Shinde LP. Effects of household processing on reduction of pesticide residues in Brinjal and Okra. International Journal of advances in Pharmacy, Biology and Chemistry 2015;4: 98-102.
25. Balinova A. M., Mladenova R. I., Shtereva D.D. Effects of processing on pesticide residues in peaches intended for baby food. Food Additives and Contaminants. 2006; 23: 895-901.
26. Kumari B. Effects of household processing on reduction of pesticide residues in vegetables. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences. 2008; 3:46-51.
27. Kaushik G, Satya S, Naik SN. Food processing a tool to pesticide residue dissipation – A review. Food Research International. 2009; 42: 26-40.
28. Document No SANCO/12571/2013 European Union. 2013. Method validation and quality control procedures for pesticides residues analysis in food and feed. Accessed04.11.12.
29. U.S. FDA, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration. 1996. Guidance for Industry Q2B Validation of Analytical Procedures: Methodology. Rockville, MD.
30. Walfish, S. Analytical Methods: A Statistical Perspective on the ICH Q2A and Q2B Guidelines for Validation of Analytical Methods, BioPharm International, 2006; 1-6.
31. Assis EC, Silva AA, Barbosa LC, Queiroz M E L R, D’antonino L, Gonçalves V A. Optimization and validation of the solid-liquid extraction technique for determination of picloram in soils by high performance liquid chromatography, Planta Daninha, Viçosa-MG 2011; 29:683-696.
32. Nagesh M, Verma S. Decontamination of cabbage treated with chlorpyriphos and quinalphos. Indian Journal of Entomology. 1997; 59:404–410.
33. Nath G, Jat RN, Srivastava BP (1975) Effect of washing, cooking and dehydration on the removal of some Insecticides from Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench.). Journal of Food Science and Technology. 12:127–130.
34. Kadian S, Kumar R, Grewal RB, Srivastava SP (2001) Effect of household processing on cypermethrin residues in some commonly used vegetables. Pestology. 25:10–13.
23 Views | Downloads
How to Cite
Original Article(s)