• DEEKSHA U. SUVARNA Nitte (Deemed to be University), NGSM Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutics, Deralakatte, Mangalore 575018, Karnataka, India
  • MARINA KOLAND Nitte (Deemed to be University), NGSM Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutics, Deralakatte, Mangalore 575018, Karnataka, India
  • ANANTH PRABHU Nitte (Deemed to be University), NGSM Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutics, Deralakatte, Mangalore 575018, Karnataka, India
  • SINDHOOR S. M. Nitte (Deemed to be University), NGSM Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutics, Deralakatte, Mangalore 575018, Karnataka, India



Cholesterol, Carbopol, Mucoadhesive, Proniosomes, Buccal, Permeation


Objective: The aim of the present work was to formulate and evaluate proniosomes of the poorly soluble drug, acyclovir incorporated in mucoadhesive polymeric films for improved buccal mucosal permeability of the drug while achieving prolonged release.

Methods: Acyclovir was formulated as proniosomes using Span 60 and cholesterol. The prepared proniosomes were loaded into mucoadhesive polymeric films prepared with varying quantities of carbopol 934P and HPMC K15M. The proniosome incorporated films were evaluated for physicomechanical characters, mucoadhesion, swelling index, drug content, in vitro drug release and ex vivo permeation through porcine buccal mucosa.

Results: Hydration of the proniosomes produced spherical vesicles or niosomes, which was confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The optimized formulation selected on the basis of vesicle size, entrapment efficiency PDI, Zetz potential and in vitro drug release was selected for incorporation into mucoadhesive polymeric films. All the films showed excellent physicomechanical characters. Formulations with higher proportions of carbopol produced slower in vitro drug release. The kinetics of release of drug from all the formulations appeared to be zero-order based on their regression coefficient values. Comparative evaluation of ex vivo permeation from niosomal and non-niosomal films indicated that the former demonstrated improved mucosal permeation and drug release was also sustained for the 8 h period.

Conclusion: Mucoadhesive films impregnated with acyclovir loaded proniosomes could be a potential approach for buccal delivery of acyclovir for improving its absorption and bioavailability. 


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How to Cite

SUVARNA, D. U., KOLAND, M., PRABHU, A., & S. M., S. (2021). MUCOADHESIVE POLYMERIC FILMS OF ACYCLOVIR PRONIOSOMES FOR BUCCAL ADMINISTRATION. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 13(1), 135–143.



Original Article(s)