• D. GANESH Department of Chemistry, GIS, GITAM (Deemed to be University), Visakhapatnam 530045, Andhra Pradesh, India
  • P. SURESH Department of Chemistry, SCNR Government Degree College, Proddatur, Kadapa 516360, Andhra Pradesh, India
  • G. SRINIVAS RAO Department of Chemistry, GIS, GITAM (Deemed to be University), Visakhapatnam 530045, Andhra Pradesh, India


Objective: The objective of this study is to fabricate sodium alginate (SA)/gum ghatti (GG) microbeads intercalated with Kaolin (KA) nano clay for the sustained release of curcumin (CUR).

Methods: The microbeads were prepared by a simple ionotropic gelation technique. The developed beads were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (X-RD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Swelling studies and in vitro release studies were investigated under both pH 7.4 and pH 1.2 at 37 °C.

Results: The developed microbeads were characterized by FTIR, which confirms the interaction between CUR, polymeric matrix and KA. DSC and XRD analysis reveals that the CUR has molecularly dispersed in the polymer matrix. In vitro results illustrated that microbeads were influenced by the pH of test media, which might be suitable for intestinal drug delivery. The drug release mechanism was analyzed by fitting the release data into different kinetic equations and n values are obtained in the range of 0.609-0.640, suggesting that the developed microbeads showed the non-Fickian diffusion type drug release.

Conclusion: These results clearly illustrated that the developed KA intercalated polymeric microbeads are potential drug carriers for the controlled release of CUR.

Keywords: Gum Ghatti, Kaolin, Sodium alginate, Curcumin, Microbeads


1. Ganguly S, Maity PP, Mondal S, Das P, Bhawal P, Dhara S, et al. Polysaccharide and poly(methacrylic acid) based biodegradable elastomeric biocompatible semi-IPN hydrogel for controlled drug delivery. Mater Sci Eng C 2018;92:34-51.
2. Reddy OS, Subha M, Jithendra T, Madhavi C, Rao KC. Fabrication of Gelatin/Karaya gum blend microspheres for the controlled release of distigmine bromide. J Drug Delivery Ther 2019;9:1-11.
3. Liechty WB, Kryscio DR, Slaughter BV, Peppas NA. Polymers for drug delivery systems. Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2010;1:149-73.
4. Peppas N, Bures P, Leobandung W, Ichikawa H. Hydrogels in pharmaceutical formulations. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2000;50:27-46.
5. George A, Shah PA, Shrivastav PS. Natural biodegradable polymers based nano-formulations for drug delivery: a review. Int J Pharm 2019;561:244-64.
6. Reddy OS, Subha M, Jithendra T, Madhavi C, Rao KC. Fabrication and characterization of smart karaya gum/sodium alginate semi-IPN microbeads for controlled release of D-penicillamine drug. Polym Polym Compos 2020. https://doi.org/ 10.1177/0967391120904477.
7. Constantinidis I, Grant SC, Celper S, Gauffin Holmberg I, Agering K, Oca Cossio JA, et al. Non-invasive evaluation of alginate/poly-l-lysine/alginate microcapsules by magnetic resonance microscopy. Biomaterials 2007;28:2438-45.
8. Jithendra T, Reddy OS, Subha M, Madhavi C, Rao KC. Xanthan gum graft copolymer/sodium alginate micro beads coated with chitosan for controlled release of chlorthalidone drug. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2020;11:1132-45.
9. Reddy OS, Subha MCS, Jithendra T, Madhavi C, Rao KC. Curcumin encapsulated dual cross linked sodium alginate/montmorillonite polymeric composite beads for controlled drug delivery. J Pharm Anal 2020. DOI:10.1016/j.jpha.2020.07.002
10. Zhang W, Ding Y, Boyd SA, Teppen BJ, Li H. Sorption and desorption of carbamazepine from water by smectite clays. Chemosphere 2010;81:954-60.
11. Massaro M, Colletti CG, Lazzara G, Riela S. The use of some clay minerals as natural resources for drug carrier applications. J Funct Biomater 2018;9:58.
12. Carretero MI, Pozo M. Clay and non-clay minerals in the pharmaceutical industry: part I. Excipients and medical applications. Appl Clay Sci 2009;46:73-80.
13. Liang Y, Xu C, Li G, Liu T, Liang JF, Wang X. Graphene-kaolin composite sponge for rapid and riskless hemostasis. Colloids Surf B 2018;169:168-75.
14. Sena MJ, Douglas G, Gerlach T, Grayson JK, Pichakron KO, Zierold D. A pilot study of the use of kaolin-impregnated gauze (Combat Gauze) for packing high-grade hepatic injuries in a hypothermic coagulopathic swine model. J Surg Res 2013;183:704-9.
15. Reddy OS, Subha M, Jithendra T, Madhavi C, Rao KC, Mallikarjuna B. Sodium alginate/gelatin microbeads-intercalated with kaolin nanoclay for emerging drug delivery in wilson’s disease. Int J Appl Pharm 2019;11:71-80.
16. Awad ME, Lopez Galindo A, Setti M, El-Rahmany MM, Iborra CV. Kaolinite in pharmaceutics and biomedicine. Int J Pharm 2017;533:34-48.
17. Behbahani ES, Ghaedi M, Abbaspour M, Rostamizadeh K, Dashtian K. Curcumin loaded nanostructured lipid carriers: in vitro digestion and release studies. Polyhedron 2019;164:113-22.
18. Sun J, Bi C, Chan HM, Sun S, Zhang Q, Zheng Y. Curcumin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles have prolonged in vitro antitumour activity, cellular uptake and improved in vivo bioavailability. Colloids Surf B 2013;111:367-75.
19. Chen HW, Huang HC. Effect of curcumin on cell cycle progression and apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells. Br J Pharmacol 1998;124:1029-40.
20. Reddy OS, Subha M, Jithendra T, Madhavi C, Rao KC. Emerging novel drug delivery system for control release of curcumin through sodium alginate/poly (ethylene glycol) semi IPN microbeads-intercalated with kaolin nanoclay. J Drug Delivery Ther 2019;9:324-33.
21. Boppana R, Krishna Mohan G, Nayak U, Mutalik S, Sa B, Kulkarni RV. Novel pH-sensitive IPNs of polyacrylamide-g-gum ghatti and sodium alginate for gastro-protective drug delivery. Int J Biol Macromol 2015;75:133-43.
22. Deshmukh AS, Setty CM, Badiger AM, Muralikrishna KS. Gum ghatti: a promising polysaccharide for pharmaceutical applications. Carbohydr Polym 2012;87:980-6.
23. Ray S, Roy G, Maiti S, Bhattacharyya UK, Sil A, Mitra R. Development of smart hydrogels of etherified gum ghatti for sustained oral delivery of ropinirole hydrochloride. Int J Biol Macromol 2017;103:347-54.
24. Chintha M, Obireddy SR, Areti P, Marata CSS, Kashayi CR, Rapoli JK. Sodium alginate/locust bean gum-g-methacrylic acid IPN hydrogels for “simvastatin” drug delivery. J Dispersion Sci Technol 2019;21:2192-2202.
25. Grant GT, Morris ER, Rees DA, Smith PJC, Thom D. Biological interactions between polysaccharides and divalent cations: the egg-box model. FEBS Lett 1973;32:195-8.
26. Sanchez Ballester NM, Soulairol I, Bataille B, Sharkawi T. Flexible heteroionic calcium-magnesium alginate beads for controlled drug release. Carbohydr Polym 2019;207:224-9.
27. Madhavi C, Babu PK, Maruthi Y, Parandhama A, Reddy OS, Rao K, et al. Sodium alginate–locust bean gum IPN hydrogel beads for the controlled delivery of nimesulide-anti-inflammatory drug. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;9:245-52.
28. Costa P, Lobo JMS. Modeling and comparison of dissolution profiles. Eur J Pharm Sci 2001;13:123-33.
29. Dash S, Murthy PN, Nath L, Chowdhury P. Kinetic modeling on drug release from controlled drug delivery systems. Acta Pol Pharm 2010;67:217-23.
30. Gouda R, Baishya H, Qing Z. Application of mathematical models in drug release kinetics of carbidopa and levodopa ER tablets. J Dev Drugs 2017;6:1-8.
31. Dozie Nwachukwu SO, Danyuo Y, Obayemi JD, Odusanya OS, Malatesta K, Soboyejo WO. Extraction and encapsulation of prodigiosin in chitosan microspheres for targeted drug delivery. Mater Sci Eng C 2017;71:268-78.
32. Arhewoh IM, Okhamafe AO. An overview of site-specific delivery of orally administered proteins/peptides and modelling considerations. Int J Med Biomed Res 2004;3:7-20.
33. Rekik SB, Gassara S, Bouaziz J, Deratani A, Baklouti S. Development and characterization of porous membranes based on kaolin/chitosan composite. Appl Clay Sci 2017;143:1-9.
34. Zhang Y, Long M, Huang P, Yang H, Chang S, Hu Y, et al. Intercalated 2D nanoclay for emerging drug delivery in cancer therapy. Nano Res 2017;10:2633-43.
35. Jithendra T, Reddy OS, Subha MCS, Rao KC. Fabrication of drug delivery system for control release of curcumin, intercalated with magnetite nano particles through sodium alginate/ polyvinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate semi IPN microbeads. Int J Appl Pharm 2020;12:249-57.
36. Jain S, Datta M. Montmorillonite-alginate microspheres as a delivery vehicle for oral extended release of venlafaxine hydrochloride. J Drug Delivery Sci Technol 2016;33:149-56.
37. Dewi R, Agusnar H, Alfian Z. Characterization of technical kaolin using XRF, SEM, XRD, FTIR and its potentials as industrial raw materials. J Phys Conf Ser 2018. DOI:10.1088/ 1742-6596/1116/4/042010.
38. Govindaraju R, Karki R, Chandrashekarappa J, Santhanam M, Shankar AKK, Joshi HK, et al. Enhanced water dispersibility of curcumin encapsulated in alginate-polysorbate 80 nano particles and bioavailability in healthy human volunteers. Pharm Nanotechnol 2019;7:39-56.
32 Views | 23 Downloads
How to Cite
GANESH, D., SURESH, P., & RAO, G. S. (2021). FABRICATION OF SODIUM ALGINATE/GUM GHATTI IPN MICROBEADS INTERCALATED WITH KAOLIN NANO CLAY FOR CONTROLLED RELEASE OF CURCUMIN. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 13(1), 233-241. https://doi.org/10.22159/ijap.2021v13i1.39963
Original Article(s)