• KAINOOR K. JANARDHANAN Amala Cancer Research Centre, Amalanagar, Thrissur 680555 India
  • KORATTUVALAPPIL S. RAVIKUMAR Amala Cancer Research Centre, Amalanagar, Thrissur 680555 India
  • S. MOHAN KARUPPAYIL Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, DY Patil Education Institute (Deemed to be University), NACC Accredited With a Grade. Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India



Medicinal mushroom, Drug development


Mushrooms represent a major yet largely untapped source of therapeutically useful bioactive compounds. Despite mushrooms were in use since antiquity in traditional folk medicine attempts to isolate their bioactive components and to elucidate their medicinal properties have started only recently. Many pharmaceutical substances with unique properties were recently extracted from mushrooms and made their way all over the world. A number of medicinal mushrooms have been identified to possess anticancer effects recently. Some of the well-known examples are Lentinan from Lentinus edodes, Krestin from Trametes versicolor, Ganopoly from Ganoderma lucidum and Schizophyllan from Schizophyllum commune. We investigated the anticancer activities of a number of medicinal mushrooms in our laboratory. Some of the recent scientific evdences on the anticancer activities of Ganoderma lucidum, Phellinus rimosus, and Fomitopsis pinicola are discussed in this short review.


Download data is not yet available.


1. Chang ST, Miles P. Mushrooms, cultivation, nutritional value, medicinal effects and environmental impact CRC Press: New York, USA; 2004.
2. Hobbs Ch. Medicinal mushrooms: an exploration of tradition, healing and culture. 2nd Ed. Botanica Press: New York, USA; 1995.
3. Janardhanan KK, Ajith TA. Developments in medicinal mushrooms: biology and therapeutic properties. Astral International Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, India; 2015. p. 19-34.
4. Smith J, Rowan N, Sullivan R. Medicinal mushrooms: their therapeutic properties and current medicinal usages with special emphasis on cancer treatment. Special report commissioned by Cancer Research UK; The University of Strathelyde in Glasgow; 2001.
5. Wasser SP. Current findings, future trends and unsolved problems in studies of medicinal mushrooms. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2010;89:1323-32.
6. Zhou X, Lin J, Yin Y, Zhao J, Sun X, Tang K. Ganodermataceae: natural products and their related pharmacological functions. Am J Chinese Med 2007;35:559-74.
7. Wasser SP. Reishi or ling zhi (Ganoderma lucidum)) encyclopedia diet supplement; 2005. p. 603-22.
8. Bao XF, Liu CP, Fang JN, Li XY. Structural and immunological studies of a major polysaccharide from spores of Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst. Cabohydrate Res 2001;332:67-74.
9. Kim HW, Kim BK. Biomedical tritepenoids from Ganoderma lucidum (Curt. :Fr.) P. Karst (Aphyllophoromycetidaae). Int J Med Mushr 1999;1:121-38.
10. Yuen TWM, Gohel MDI. Anticancer effects of Ganoderma lucidum: review of scientific evidence. Nutr Cancer 2005;53:11-7.
11. Jones S, Janardhanan KK. Antioxidant and antitumor activity of Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.: Fr) P. Karst.–Reishi (Aphyllophoromycetideae) from South India. Inter J Med Mushrooms 2000;2:195-200.
12. Jin X, Ruiz Beguerie J, Sze DM, Chan GC. Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) for cancer treatment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016;4:CD007731.
13. Lakshmi B, Sheena N, Janardhanan KK. Prevention of mammary adenocarcinoma and skin tumor by Ganoderma lucidum, a medicinal mushroom occurring in South India. Cur Sci 2009;97:1658-63.
14. Joseph S, Sabulal B, George V, Antony KA, Janardhanan KK. Antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities of polysaccharides isolated from Ganoderma lucidum. Acta Pharm 2011;61:335-42.
15. Sliva D. Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) in cancer treatment. Integ Cancer Ther 2003;2:358-64.
16. Zang NM, Zang L. Isolation, purification and pharmacological actions and application to functional food of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide. Food Res Dev 2005;26:118-20.
17. Gao Y, Zhou S, Jiang W, Huang M, Dai X. Effect of ganopoly (a Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide extract) on the immune functions in advanced-stage cancer patients. Immunol Inves 2003;32:201-15.
18. Smina TP, Nith B, Devasagayam TPA, Janardhanan KK. Ganoderma lucidum total terpenes induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells and attenuate DMBA induced mammary and skin carcinoma in experimental animals. Mutation RE/Genetic Tox Environ Mutag 2017;813:45-51.
19. Bishop KS, Kao CHK, Xu Y, Glucina MP, Paterson RRM. From 2000 y of Ganoderma lucidum to recent development. Phytochemistry 2015;114:56-65.
20. Mizno T. The extraction and development of antitumor active polysaccharides from medicinal mushroomsin Japan (review). Int J Med Mushrooms 1999;1:9-29.
21. Konn S, Chu K, Feuer N, Phillips J, Choudhur M. Potent anticancer effects of bioactive mushroom extracts (Phellinus liteus) on a variety human cancer cells. J Clin Med Res 2015;7:76-82.
22. Zhu T, Guo J, Collins L, Kelly J, Xiao ZJ, Kim SH, et al. Phellinus linteus activate different pathways to induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Br J Cancer 2007;96:583-90.
23. Sliva D. Medicinal mushroom, Phellinus linteus as an alternative cancer therapy (Review). Exp Ther Med 2010;1:407-11.
24. Ganesh PN. Studies on wood inhabiting macrofungi of Kerala. Ph. D Thesis, University of Calicut, India; 1988. p. 45.
25. Ajith TA, Janardhanan KK. Indian medicinal mushrooms as a source of antioxidant and antitumor agents. J Clin Biochem Nutr 2007;40:157-62.
26. Ajith TA, Janardhanan KK. Cytotoxic and antitumor activities of a polypore macrofungus, Phellinus rimosus (Berk) pilat. J Ethanopharmacol 2003;84:157-62.
27. Ajith TA, Janardhanan KK. Antimutagenic effect of Phellinus rimosus (Berk) Pilat against chemical induced mutation of histidine dependent Salmonella typhimurium strains. Food Chem Toxicol 2011;49:2676-80.
28. Meera CR, Janardhanan KK. Antitumor activity of a polysaccharide-protein complex isolated from a wood-rotting polypore macro fungus Phillinus rimosu s(Berk) Pilat. J Environ Path Oncol 2012;31:223-32.
29. Ajith TA, Janardhanan KK. Chemopreventive activity of macrofungus Phellinus rimosus against N-nitrosodimethylamine induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rat. J Exp Ther Oncol 2006;5:1-13.
30. Meera CR, Janrdhanan KK, Karunagaran D. Antiproliferative and apoptotic activities of the medicinal mushroom Phellinus rimosus (Agaricomycetes) on HCT116 human colorectal carcinoma cells. Inter J Med. Mushrooms 2018;20:935-45.
31. Rosecke J, Koing W. Constuents of various wood-rotting basidomycetes. Phytochemistry 2000;54:747-50.
32. Cheng J, Lin C, Lur H, Chen H, Lu M. Properties and biological functions of polysaccharides and ethanol extracts isolated from medicinal fungus, Fomitopsis pinicola. Proc Biochem 2008;43:829-34.
33. Wang, Cheng X, Wang P, Wang L, Ran J, Wang X, et al. Investigating migration and apoptotic effects of Fomitopsis pinicola chloroform extracton human colorectal cancer SW-480 cells. PloS One 2014;9:e101303.
34. Bishop KS. Characterization of extracts and anticancer activities of Fomitopsis pinicola. Nutrients 2020;12:609.
35. Patel S, Goyal A. Recent development in mushrooms as anticancer therapeutics: a review. 3 Biotech 2012;2:1-15.



How to Cite




Full Proceeding Paper