• Any Guntarti Universitas Ahmad Dahlan
  • Karina Primatyas Ningrum Universitas Ahmad Dahlan
  • Ibnu Gholib Gandjar Universitas Ahmad Dahlan
  • Nina Salamah


Objective: Misuse of rat meat as food worried people. Rat meat can come from research waste; one of the rats used in the research was the Sprague Dawley. Analysis of rat meat in food can be done using fat. The aim of this study was to authenticate rat fat with GC-MS combined with chemometrics.
Methods: The meat of Sprague Dawley rats, wild boar, goats, cow, and processed meatballs was put in the oven at 90-100oC for ± one hour, then derivatized with BF3 and NaOH in methanol to get the methyl ester for injected in GC-MS instrument. The results obtained were in the form of chromatograms and spectrograms. The data was processed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to grouping rat's meat with others (wild boars, goats, cows, and processed meatballs).
Result: Rat meat fatty acid analysis results with GC-MS were obtained oleate (43.32±1.43)%, linolenate (32.24±1.46)%, palmitate (19.75±0.09)%, palmitoleate (1.14±0.06)%, stearate (0.26±0.01)%, myristate(0.18±0.01)%, margarate (0.15±0.02)%, and pentadecanoate (0.14±0.01)%. The PCA chemometrics results showed that rat meats had scores that close to cows, which meant had similar fatty acid composition.
Conclusion: The GC-MS method, combined with PCA chemometrics, tested rat fat with other animals and processed meatballs samples on the market.

Keywords: Chemometrics, fatty acids, GC-MS, PCA, rat; Sprague Dawley


Aparicio, R., Morales, M.T., Aparicio-Ruiz, R., Tena, N., and García-González, D.L. Authenticity of olive oil: Mapping and comparing official methods and promising alternatives. Food Research International 2013;54:2025–2038.
Fajardo, V., Gonzales I, Rojas M, Garcia T, Martin R. A Review of Current PCR-Based Methodologies For The Authentication Of Meats from Game Animal Species. Trend in Food Sci Techno 2010;21:408–421.
Che Man, Y.B., and Rohman, A. Differentiation of lard from other edible fats and oils by means of fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics. Journal of American Oil Chemist' Society 2011;88:187–192.
Lusas, E.W., Alam, M.S., Clough, R.C., and Riaz, M.N. Animal and Vegetables Fats, oils, and waxes, in : Kent, J.A. (Ed.), Handbook of Industrial Chemistry and Biotechnology. Springer US 2012;80:1323–1402.
Danezis, Georgios P., Aristidis S. Tsagkaris, Valdimir Brusic, dan Constantinos A. Georgiou. Food Authentication: Techniques, Trends & Emerging Approaches, TrAC- Trends in Analytical Chemistry 2016;85:123–32
Di Pinto A, Di Pinto P, Terio V, Bozzo G, Bonerba E, Ceci E, Tantillo G. DNA barcoding for detecting market sub-stitution in salted cod fillets and battered cod chunks. Food Chem 2013;141:1757–1762.
Von Bargen C, Dojahn J, Waidelich D, Humpf HU, Brockmeyer J. New sensitive high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for detection of horse and pork in halal beef. J Agric Food Chem 2013;61:11986–11994.
Kholif Sholehah I Kurniasih, Nurull Hikmah, Yuny Erwanto and Abdul Rohman. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Canine (Canis lupus familiaris) Meat in Meatballs for Halal Authentication Study using Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Intl. J. Agric Biol 2020;23.
Tarola, M. A., A.M. Girelli., S. Lorusso. High Performance Liquid Chromatography Determination of Fatty Acids in Drying Oils Following Lipase Action. Journal of Chromatographic Science 2012;50:294–300.
Figueiredo, Ingrid Lima., Thiago Claus., Oscar O. Fast derivatization of fatty acids in different meat samples for gas chromatography analysis. Journal of Chromatography A 2016;14:235–241.
Rahayu WS, S Martono, Sudjadi, A Rohman. The potential use of infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis for differentiation of beef meatball from dog meat for Halal authentication analysis. J Adv Vet Anim Res 2018;5:307?314
Nurjuliana, M., Che Man, Y. B., and Mat Hashim D. Analysis of lard's aroma by an electronic nose for rapid halal authentication. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 2011;88:75–82.
Indrasti, D., Che Man, Y.B., Mustafa, S., and Hashim, D.M. Lard detection based on fatty acids profile using comprehensive gas chromatography hyphenated with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Food Chemistry 2010;122:1273–1277.
Hausman, Gary J., Bergen, Werner G., Etherton, Terry D., Smith, Steve B. The history of adipocyte and adipose tissue research in meat animals. J.Anim.Sci 2018;96(2):473-486.
Erwanto Yuny, Muhammad Zainal Abidin, Eko Yasin Prasetyo Muslim, Sugiyono, Abdul Rohman. Identification of Pork Contamination in Meatballs of Indonesia Local Market Using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) Analysis. Asian-Australian Journal of Animal Sciences (AJAS) 2014;27:1487–1492.
Guntarti, A., Prativi, S.R. Application method of fourier transform infrared (FTIR) combined with chemometrics for analysis of rat meat (Rattus diardi) in meatballs beef. Pharmaciana 2017;7:133–140.
Guntarti A, MAZ Amidin. Dog fat analysis in chicken meatbun using FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) with chemometric combination. Med Farm 2018;15:38?42.
Rahmania, Halida., Sudjadi, dan Abdul Rohman. The employment of FTIR spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics for analysis of rat meat in meatball formulation. Meat Science 2015;100:301–305.
Lumakso F.A , Riyanto S, Ahmad S.A.S, Rosman A.S, Yusoff F.M, and Rohman A. Application of chemometrics in combination with Fourier Transform Mid Infrared spectroscopy for authentication of avocado oil. J.Food Pharm 2015;12–17.
Rohman, A., Himawati, A., Triyana, K., Sismindari and Fatimah, S. Identification of pork in beef meatballs using fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometry and real-time polymerase chain reaction. International journal of food properties 2016;1–20.
Rohman, A., Triyana, K., Sismindari, and Erwanto, Y. Differentiation of lard and other animal fats based on triacylglycerols composition and principal component analysis. International Food Research Journal 2012;19:475–479.
Rahayu WS, A Rohman, Sudjadi, S Martono. Identification of Dog for Halal Autentification with Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GCMS) and Chemometrics. Adv Sci Lett 2018;24:138?141.
Jeenpadiphat, S. and Tungasmita, D.N. Esterification of oleic acid and high acid content palm oil over an acid-activated bentonite catalyst. Applied Clay Science 2014;87:272–277.
Koohikamali, Sara., Chin Ping Tan., Ling, Tau Chuan. Optimization of Sunflower Oil Transesterification Process Using Sodium Methoxide. The Scientific World Journal 2012; 1–8.
Chiu, Huai-Hsuan., Kuo, Ching-Hua. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry- based analytical strategies for fatty acid analysis in biological samples. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 2020;28:60–73.
Guntarti, Any., Gandjar, I. G., Jannah, N. M. Authentication of wistar rat fats with Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry combined by chemometrics. Potravinarsto Slovak Journal of Food Sciences 2020;14:52–57.
Indriyani, L., Rohman, A., and Sugeng. R. Authentication of Avocado Oil (Persea americana Mill.) Using Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Multivariate Regression. Asian Journal of Agricultural Research 2016;10:78–86.
Johnsen, Lea G., Skou, Peter B., Khakimov, Bekzod., Bro, Rasmus. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Data Processing Made Easy. Journal of Chromatography 2017;1503:57–64.
Miller, J.N., and Miller, J.C. Statistic and Chemometrics for Analytical Chemist, 6th Edition, Pearson Education Limited,. Harlow 2010;89–105.
Fitri Yuliani, Sugeng Riyanto, Abdul Rohman. Application of FTIR Spectra Combined withChemometrics for Analysis of Candlenut Oil Adulteration. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics 2018.
Nina Salamah, Yuny Erwanto, Sudibyo Martono, Irfan Maulana, Abdul Rohman. Differentiation of Bovine and Porcine Gelatines Using LC-MS/MS and Chemometrics. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics 2019.
Anjar Windarsih, Abdul Rohman, Respati Tri swasono. Authentication of Turmeric using Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy and Multivariate Anaysis. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics 2018
10 Views | Downloads
How to Cite
Guntarti, A., Ningrum, K. P., Gandjar, I. G., & Salamah, N. (2021). AUTHENTICATION OF SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS (Rattus norvegicus) FAT WITH GC-MS (GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY) COMBINED WITH CHEMOMETRICS. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 13(2). Retrieved from
Original Article(s)

Most read articles by the same author(s)