• MANAS RANJAN SAHOO Department of Pharmaceutics, SRM College of Pharmacy, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur, Tamilnadu, India
  • MARAKANAM SRINIVASAN UMASHANKAR Department of Pharmaceutics, SRM College of Pharmacy, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur, Tamilnadu, India, 603203
  • RAMESH RAGHAVA VARIER AVN Ayurveda Formulation Pvt Ltd, Madurai, Tamilnadu, India, 625004


Over the past decades major focus has been given towards innovative drug delivery systems and new dosage forms. This is due to highly expensive process and high attrition rates of existing marketed drugs. Hard-boiled lozenges (HBLs) are one of the solid dosage form designed to release the drug in saliva for either local or systemic effects. Typical application of lozenegs includes throat infection, pharyngitis, cough suppressant, nasal-decongestant, expectorants, and smoking cessation. The drug delivery through the hard-boiled candies has an easy marketing advantage due to its attractive appearance and patient compliance. As a part of the drug is absosrbed into systemic circulation, gastrointestinal degradation and fast pass effects are avoided. Further, drug delivery through hard-boiled lozenges can be potential platform for some of the suitable drug candidates. This review on hard-boiled lozenges discusses manufacturing process, characterization techniques, quality control, research studies and market potential of hard-boiled lozenges. The major databases searched were, PubMed, Wiley Online, Medline, Elsevier, Google scholar, Scopus, ACS, The Royal Society of Chemistry, SciFinder, Baidu Scholars, CNKI, web of science, Cochrane database, US Patents, Espacenet and various business reviews. This review provides comprehensive information on hard-boiled lozenges that will help the pharmaceutical scientist from academia as well pharmaceutical industry to leverage the potential of this conventional dosage form for various herbal drugs and other pharmaceutical actives.

Keywords: Medicated hard-boiled lozenges, Herbal drug, Drug delivery, Dosage form, Formulation, Characterization

Author Biographies

MARAKANAM SRINIVASAN UMASHANKAR, Department of Pharmaceutics, SRM College of Pharmacy, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur, Tamilnadu, India, 603203

Dr. M.S. Umashankar working as a professor in department of Pharmaceutics in SRM College of Pharmacy under SRM Institute of Science and Technology (formerly known as SRM University). His research interest includes Formulation and Development of mucoadhesive dosage devices, Novel drug delivery system, vascular drug delivery devices and formulation development of nano-drug delivery. He is having several publications in various research journal in the field of pharmaceutical sciences.

RAMESH RAGHAVA VARIER, AVN Ayurveda Formulation Pvt Ltd, Madurai, Tamilnadu, India, 625004

Dr. Ramesh R Varier is an eminent personality in the area of Ayurveda and is a Managing doctor of the company AVN Ayurveda Formulation Pvt Ltd. He has presented many invited scientific talks about Ayurveda and modern technology. Dr. Ramesh brings with him a rich experience spanning over 25 years of successful Ayurvedic clinical practice. Keenly interested in integrating modern scientific principles with traditional Ayurvedic concepts, Dr Ramesh has been highly successful in establishing comprehensive healthcare solutions for a variety of chronic diseases. He is the a very creative person and has been the one to conceive and implement the Hospital project. Being a gifted orator, Dr Ramesh has made innumerable presentations at many national & international conferences and at various universities worldwide. He has presented papers on various health-related topics & has also been conducting continued medical education programs for Indian & foreign students.

Research endeavors:

  • He  headed the team that Successfully converted traditional Ayurvedic formulations called Kashayams (Liquid extracts) into tablets and launched the same  in the market.
  • He Formulated more than 20 Proprietary Formulations for specific ailments from traditional Ayurvedic preparations and successfully launched them.    
  • He is Engaged in developing integrated understanding and specialized Ayurvedic treatments for a range of chronic ailments.


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