• PAROMA AREFIN Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR) Laboratories, Chattogram, Bangladesh
  • MD SHEHAN HABIB Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR) Laboratories, Chattogram, Bangladesh
  • NAZIM UDDIN AHMED Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR) Laboratories, Rajshahi, Bangladesh
  • MD ABDUR RAHIM Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR) Laboratories, Rajshahi, Bangladesh
  • MD IBRAHIM Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR) Laboratories, Rajshahi, Bangladesh
  • SREEBASH CHANDRA BHATTACHARJEE Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR) Laboratories, Chattogram, Bangladesh
  • DIPANKAR CHAKRABORTY Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR) Laboratories, Chattogram, Bangladesh
  • SUMON DAS Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR) Laboratories, Chattogram, Bangladesh
  • DEBABRATA KARMAKAR Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR) Laboratories, Chattogram, Bangladesh
  • DIP BHOWMIK Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR) Laboratories, Chattogram, Bangladesh
  • SHIRMIN ISLAM Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Rajshahi University
  • MD SAIDUL AREFIN Institute of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh



Allergic rhinitis, Bioavailability, Fexofenadine HCl, Microsphere, Second generation antihistamine


The current treatment approaches for allergic rhinitis are practiced over decades, but the patient quality of life has not yet changed so much. The reasons are research gaps in pathophysiology of the disease, proper management of the disease. Fexofenadine HCl is a second-generation antihistamine drug which has a half-life of about 14.4 h. It is useful in the management of common symptoms like sneezing, itchy throat, and red eyes in individuals suffering from allergic rhinitis. Fexofenadine immediate release or sustained release formulations are available in the market as suspension, tablet and capsule. In this research paper, we have discussed the symptoms associated with allergic rhinitis and treatment approaches. Fexofenadine HCl is being used for the treatment of this disease. But as it has a long half-life, we have discussed the importance of the introduction of sustained-release microsphere formulation of Fexofenadine HCl in the market.


Download data is not yet available.


Varshney J, Varshney H. Allergic rhinitis: an overview. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2015;67(2):143-9. doi: 10.1007/s12070-015-0828-5, PMID 26075169.

Liang M, Xu R, Xu G. Recent advances in allergic rhinitis. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2015;29(3):202-6. PMID 26012287.

Oral antihistamines for allergic disorders. Drug Ther Bull. 2002 Aug;40(8):59-62. doi: 10.1136/dtb.2002.40859, PMID 12216338.

Fein MN, Fischer DA, O’Keefe AW, Sussman GL. CSACI position statement: newer generation H1-antihistamines are safer than first-generation H1-antihistamines and should be the first-line antihistamines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol. 2019;15(1):61. doi: 10.1186/s13223-019-0375-9, PMID 31582993.

Church MK, Church DS. Pharmacology of antihistamines. Indian J Dermatol. 2013;58(3):219-24. doi: 10.4103/0019-5154.110832, PMID 23723474.

Simons FER, Simons KJ. H1 antihistamines: current status and future directions. World Allergy Organ J. 2008;1(9):145-55. doi: 10.1186/1939-4551-1-9-145, PMID 23282578.

Hu Y, Sieck DE, Hsu WH. Why are second-generation H1-antihistamines minimally sedating? Eur J Pharmacol. 2015 Oct;765:100-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2015.08.016, PMID 26291661.

Slater JW, Zechnich AD, Haxby DG. Second-generation antihistamines: a comparative review. Drugs. 1999;57(1):31-47. doi: 10.2165/00003495-199957010-00004, PMID 9951950.

Small P, Keith PK, Kim H. Allergic rhinitis. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol. 2018;14(Suppl 2):51. doi: 10.1186/s13223-018-0280-7, PMID 30263033.

Sur DK, Scandale S. Treatment of allergic rhinitis. Am Fam Physician. 2010;81(12):1440-6. PMID 20540482.

Axelrod D, Bielory L. Fexofenadine hydrochloride in the treatment of allergic disease: a review. J Asthma Allergy. 2008 Sep;1:19-29. doi: 10.2147/jaa.s3092, PMID 21436982.

Simpson K, Jarvis B. Fexofenadine: a review of its use in the management of seasonal allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria. Drugs. 2000 Feb;59(2):301-21. doi: 10.2165/ 00003495-200059020-00020, PMID 10730552.

Meltzer EO, Casale TB, Nathan RA, Thompson AK. Once-daily fexofenadine HCl improves the quality of life and reduces work and activity impairment in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1999 Oct;83(4):311-7. doi: 10.1016/S1081-1206(10)62671-3, PMID 10541423.

Moinuddin R, DeTineo M, Maleckar B, Naclerio RM, Baroody FM. Comparison of the combinations of fexofenadine-pseudoephedrine and loratadine-montelukast in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004 Jan;92(1):73-9. doi: 10.1016/S1081-1206(10)61713-9, PMID 14756468.

Arefin P, Hasan I, Islam MS, Reza MS. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of Eudragit RL 100 loaded fexofenadine HCl microspheres. Bangla Pharma J. 2016 Aug;19(1):58-67. doi: 10.3329/bpj.v19i1.29240.

Arefin P, Hasan I, Reza MS. Design, characterization and in vitro evaluation of HPMC K100 M CR loaded fexofenadine HCl microspheres. Springerplus. 2016 Dec;5(1). doi: 10.1186/s40064-016-2322-2.

Das MK, Ahmed AB, Saha D. Microsphere a drug delivery system–A review. Int J Curr Pharm Sci. 2019 Jul:34-41. doi: 10.22159/ijcpr.2019v11i4.34941.

Chauhan A, Sagar MK, Kumar S, Sharma A. Formulation and evaluation of sustained-release microsphere for oral bioavailability enhancement of. Crit Rev. 2020;7(18):3057-70.

Gandra S. Enhanced intestinal absorption and bioavailability via proniosomes for Bazedoxifene acetate drug. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2020 Nov;12(12):31-42. doi: 10.22159/ijpps.2020v12i12.39576.

Bernstein DI, Schoenwetter WF, Nathan RA, Storms W, Ahlbrandt R, Mason J. Efficacy and safety of fexofenadine hydrochloride for treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1997 Nov;79(5):443-8. doi: 10.1016/S1081-1206(10)63041-4, PMID 9396979.

Boyarchuk O. Allergic manifestations of primary immunodeficiency diseases and its treatment approaches. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2018 Nov;11(11):83. doi: 10.22159/ajpcr.2018.v11i11.29059.

Bjermer L, Westman M, Holmström M, Wickman MC. The complex pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis: scientific rationale for the development of an alternative treatment option. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol. 2019;15(1):24. doi: 10.1186/s13223-018-0314-1, PMID 31015846.

Titulaer J, Arefian H, Hartmann M, Younis MZ, Guntinas-Lichius O. Cost-effectiveness of allergic rhinitis treatment: an exploratory study. SAGE Open Med. 2018;6:2050312118794588. doi: 10.1177/2050312118794588, PMID 30147935.

Ciprandi G, Cosentino C, Milanese M, Mondino C, Canonica GW. Fexofenadine reduces nasal congestion in perennial allergic rhinitis. Allergy. 2001 Nov;56(11):1068-70. doi: 10.1034/j.1398-9995.2001.00191.x, PMID 11703220.

Oktemer T, Altintoprak N, Muluk NB, Senturk M, Kar M, Ali Bafaqeeh S, Bellussi L, Passali D, Cingi C. Clinical efficacy of immunotherapy in allergic rhinitis. Am J Rhinol-Allergy. 2016 Sep;30(5Suppl):S4-7. doi: 10.2500/ajra.2016.30.4368.

Bernstein JA. Allergic and mixed rhinitis: epidemiology and natural history. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2010;31(5):365-9. doi: 10.2500/aap.2010.31.3380, PMID 20929601.

Arefin P, Arefin MS, Arefin A. A review on the ayurvedic management of causes and symptoms of bronchial asthma. ASA Univ Rev. 2015;9(2):269-76.

Kim H, Bouchard J, Renzi PM. The link between allergic rhinitis and asthma: A role for antileukotrienes? Can Respir J. 2008;15(2):91-8. doi: 10.1155/2008/416095, PMID 18354749.

Meltzer EO. Role for cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist therapy in asthma and their potential role in allergic rhinitis based on the concept of “one linked airway disease” Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2000 Feb;84(2):176-85; quiz 185. doi: 10.1016/S1081-1206(10)62750-0, PMID 10719774.

Skoner DP. Allergic rhinitis: definition, epidemiology, pathophysiology, detection, and diagnosis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001 Jul;108(1);Suppl:S2-8. doi: 10.1067/mai.2001.115569, PMID 11449200.

Almehizia AA, AlEssa RK, Alwusaidi KM, Alzamil KA, AlJumah M, Aljohani S, Almutairi AF, Salam M. Allergic rhinitis: disease characteristics and coping measures in Saudi Arabia. PLOS ONE. 2019 Jun;14(6):e0217182. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0217182, PMID 31242201.

Weber RW. Allergic rhinitis. Prim Care Clin Off Pract. 2008 Mar;35(1):1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.pop.2007.09.001.

Srivastava R, Srivastava S, Singh SP. Thermoreversible in-situ nasal gel formulations and their pharmaceutical evaluation for the treatment of allergic rhinitis containing extracts of Moringa olifera and Embelia ribes. Int J Appl Pharm. 2017 Nov;9(6):16. doi: 10.22159/ijap.2017v9i6.18780.

Baraniuk JN. Pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1997;99(2):S763-72. doi: 10.1016/s0091-6749(97)70125-8. PMID 9042069.

Rondon C, Campo P, Togias A, Fokkens WJ, Durham SR, Powe DG, Mullol J, Blanca M. Local allergic rhinitis: concept, pathophysiology, and management. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;129(6):1460-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2012.02.032, PMID 22516477.

Taylor Clark T. Histamine in allergic rhinitis. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;709:33-41. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4419-8056-4_4, PMID 21618885.

Naclerio RM. The role of histamine in allergic rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1990 Oct;86(4 Pt 2):628-32. doi: 10.1016/s0091-6749(05)80227-1, PMID 1977783.

Rosenwasser LJ. Treatment of allergic rhinitis. Am J Med. 2002 Dec; 113(9);Suppl 9A:17–2417S-24S. doi: 10.1016/s0002-9343(02)01433-x, PMID 12517578.

Simons FER, Simons KJ. Histamine and H1-antihistamines: celebrating a century of progress. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128(6):1139-50. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2011.09.005, PMID 22035879.

Bousquet J, Khaltaev N, Cruz AA, Denburg J, Fokkens WJ, Togias A, Zuberbier T, Baena-Cagnani CE, Canonica GW, van Weel C, Agache I, Aït-Khaled N, Bachert C, Blaiss MS, Bonini S, Boulet LP, Bousquet PJ, Camargos P, Carlsen KH, Chen Y, Custovic A, Dahl R, Demoly P, Douagui H, Durham SR, van Wijk RG, Kalayci O, Kaliner MA, Kim YY, Kowalski ML, Kuna P, Le LT, Lemiere C, Li J, Lockey RF, Mavale-Manuel S, Meltzer EO, Mohammad Y, Mullol J, Naclerio R, O’Hehir RE, Ohta K, Ouedraogo S, Palkonen S, Papadopoulos N, Passalacqua G, Pawankar R, Popov TA, Rabe KF, Rosado-Pinto J, Scadding GK, Simons FE, Toskala E, Valovirta E, van Cauwenberge P, Wang DY, Wickman M, Yawn BP, Yorgancioglu A, Yusuf OM, Zar H, Annesi-Maesano I, Bateman ED, Ben Kheder A, Boakye DA, Bouchard J, Burney P, Busse WW, Chan-Yeung M, Chavannes NH, Chuchalin A, Dolen WK, Emuzyte R, Grouse L, Humbert M, Jackson C, Johnston SL, Keith PK, Kemp JP, Klossek JM, Larenas Linnemann D, Lipworth B, Malo JL, Marshall GD, Naspitz C, Nekam K, Niggemann B, Nizankowska Mogilnicka E, Okamoto Y, Orru MP, Potter P, Price D, Stoloff SW, Vandenplas O, Viegi G, Williams D, World Health Organization, GA(2)LEN, AllerGen. Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) 2008 update (in collaboration with the World Health Organization, GA(2)LEN and AllerGen). Allergy. 2008 Apr; 63Suppl 86:8-160. doi: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2007.01620.x, PMID 18331513.

Larsson U, Taft C, Karlsson J, Sullivan M. Gender and age differences in the relative burden of rhinitis and asthma on health-related quality of life-A Swedish population study. Respir Med. 2007 Jun; 101(6):1291-8. doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2006.10.014, PMID 17150347.

Nyenhuis SM, Mathur SK. Rhinitis in older adults. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2013;13(2):171-7. doi: 10.1007/s11882-013-0342-3, PMID 23389558.

Maeda T, Babazono A, Nishi T. Surveillance of first-generation H1-antihistamine use for older patients with dementia in Japan: A retrospective cohort study. Curr Gerontol Geriatr Res. 2018 Jul;2018:1–63406210. doi: 10.1155/2018/3406210, PMID 30065759.

Petersen TH, Agertoft L. Corticosteroids for allergic rhinitis. Curr Treat Options Allergy. 2016;3(1):18-30. doi: 10.1007/s40521-016-0075-3.

Hox V, Lourijsen E, Jordens A, Aasbjerg K, Agache I, Alobid I, Bachert C, Boussery K, Campo P, Fokkens W, Hellings P, Hopkins C, Klimek L, Makela M, Mosges R, Mullol J, Pujols L, Rondon C, Rudenko M, Toppila Salmi S, Scadding G, Scheire S, Tomazic PV, Van Zele T, Wagemann M, van Boven JFM, Gevaert P. Benefits and harm of systemic steroids for short- and long-term use in rhinitis and rhinosinusitis: an EAACI position paper. Clin Transl Allergy. 2020;10(1):1–271. doi: 10.1186/s13601-019-0303-6, PMID 31908763.

Mazzotta P, Loebstein R, Koren G. Treating allergic rhinitis in pregnancy. Safety considerations. Drug Saf. 1999;20(4):361-75. doi: 10.2165/00002018-199920040-00005, PMID 10230583.

Khan NU, Begum KS. Allergic rhinitis during pregnancy-an update of management. Med Today. 2017;28(2):83-8. doi: 10.3329/medtoday.v28i2.32933.

Slavin RG. Treating rhinitis in the older population: special considerations. Allergy, Asthma Clin Immunol. 2009;5(1):1–4:9. doi: 10.1186/1710-1492-5-9, PMID 20016692.

Pinto JM, Jeswani S. Rhinitis in the geriatric population. Allergy, Asthma Clin Immunol. 2010;6(1):1–12:10. doi: 10.1186/1710-1492-6-10, PMID 20465792.

Naclerio R. Anticholinergic drugs in nonallergic rhinitis. World Allergy Organ J. 2009;2(8):162-5. doi: 10.1097/WOX.0b013e3181b35336, PMID 24228813.

Serlin DC, Heidelbaugh JJ, Stoffel JT. Urinary retention in adults: evaluation and initial management. Am Fam Physician. 2018;98(8):496-503. PMID 30277739.

Verhamme KMC, Sturkenboom MCJM, Stricker BHC, Bosch R. Drug-induced urinary retention: incidence, management and prevention. Drug Saf. 2008;31(5):373-88. doi: 10.2165/00002018-200831050-00002, PMID 18422378.

Mir E, Panjabi C, Shah A. Impact of allergic rhinitis in school going children. Asia Pac Allergy. 2012;2(2):93-100. doi: 10.5415/apallergy.2012.2.2.93, PMID 22701858.

Muether PS, Gwaltney Jr JM. Variant effect of first‐ and second‐generation antihistamines as clues to their mechanism of action on the sneeze reflex in the common cold. Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Nov;33(9):1483-8. doi: 10.1086/322518, PMID 11588693.

Randall KL, Hawkins CA. Antihistamines and allergy. Aust Prescr. 2018;41(2):42–541-5. doi: 10.18773/ austprescr.2018.013, PMID 29670310.

Ozdemir PG, Karadag AS, Selvi Y, Boysan M, Bilgili SG, Aydin A, Onder S. Assessment of the effects of antihistamine drugs on mood, sleep quality, sleepiness, and dream anxiety. Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract. 2014 Aug;18(3):161-8. doi: 10.3109/13651501.2014.907919, PMID 24673474.

Shasho H, Sakur AA, Trefi S. Eparation and assay of four antihistamine drugs diphenhydramine, chlorpheniramine, cyproheptadine and fexofenadine in pharmaceutical forms by a single HPLC method. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2018 Apr; 10(4):53. doi: 10.22159/ijpps.2018v10i4.24819.

Kaiser HB, Rooklin A, Spangler D, Capano D. Efficacy of loratadine compared with fexofenadine or placebo for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. Clin Drug Investig. 2001;21(8):571-8. doi: 10.2165/00044011-200121080-00006.

Okubo K, Suzuki T, Tanaka A, Aoki H. Efficacy and safety of rupatadine in Japanese patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis: A double-blind, randomized, multicenter, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Allergol Int. 2019 Apr;68(2):207-15. doi: 10.1016/j.alit.2018.08.011, PMID 30391169.

Juel Berg N, Darling P, Bolvig J, Foss Skiftesvik MH, Halken S, Winther L, Hansen KS, Askjaer N, Heegaard S, Madsen AR, Opstrup MS. Intranasal corticosteroids compared with oral antihistamines in allergic rhinitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2017 Jan;31(1):e19–2819-28. doi: 10.2500/ajra.2016.30.4397, PMID 28234147.

Ortiz AS, McMains KC, Laury AM. Single vs multiallergen sublingual immunotherapy in the polysensitized patient: a pilot study. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2018 Apr;8(4):490-4. doi: 10.1002/alr.22071, PMID 29377605.

Valovirta E, Petersen TH, Piotrowska T, Laursen MK, Andersen JS, Sørensen HF, Klink R, GAP investigators. Results from the 5-year SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet asthma prevention (GAP) trial in children with grass pollen allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018 Feb;141(2):529-38. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2017.06.014, PMID 28689794.

Pajno GB, Bernardini R, Peroni D, Arasi S, Martelli A, Landi M, Passalacqua G, Muraro A, La Grutta S, Fiocchi A, Indinnimeo L, Caffarelli C, Calamelli E, Comberiati P, Duse M, Allergen-specific immunotherapy panel of the italian society of pediatric allergy and immunology (SIAIP). Clinical practice recommendations for allergen-specific immunotherapy in children: the Italian consensus report. Ital J Pediatr. 2017 Dec;43(1):13. doi: 10.1186/s13052-016-0315-y, PMID 28257631.

Yonekura S, Gotoh M, Kaneko S, Kanazawa K, Takeuji Y, Okubo K, Okamoto Y. Treatment duration-dependent efficacy of Japanese cedar pollen sublingual immunotherapy: evaluation of a phase II/III trial over three pollen dispersal seasons. Allergol Int. 2019 Oct;68(4):494-505. doi: 10.1016/j.alit.2019.05.002, PMID 31257168.

Sayed KM, Kamel AG, Ali AH. One-year evaluation of clinical and immunological efficacy and safety of sublingual versus subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy in allergic conjunctivitis. Graefe’s Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2019 Sep;257(9):1989-96. doi: 10.1007/s00417-019-04389-w, PMID 31209565.

Moote W, Kim H, Ellis AK. Allergen-specific immunotherapy. Allergy, Asthma Clin Immunol. 2018 Sep;14(Suppl 2):53. doi: 10.1186/s13223-018-0282-5, PMID 30275845.

Bernstein DI, Bardelas JA, Svanholm Fogh B, Kaur A, Li Z, Nolte H. A practical guide to the sublingual immunotherapy tablet adverse event profile: implications for clinical practice. Postgrad Med. 2017 Aug;129(6):590-7. doi: 10.1080/00325481.2017.1302306, PMID 28326906.

Ellis AK, Gagnon R, Hammarby E, Lau A. Sublingual immunotherapy tablet for the treatment of house dust mite allergic rhinitis in Canada: an alternative to minimize treatment costs? Allergy, Asthma Clin Immunol. 2019 Dec;15(1):27. doi: 10.1186/s13223-019-0344-3, PMID 31061666.

Hossenbaccus L, Linton S, Garvey S, Ellis AK. Towards definitive management of allergic rhinitis: best use of new and established therapies. Allergy, Asthma Clin Immunol. 2020 Dec;16(1):39. doi: 10.1186/s13223-020-00436-y, PMID 32508939.

Brozek JL, Bousquet J, Agache I, Agarwal A, Bachert C, Bosnic Anticevich S, Brignardello-Petersen R, Canonica GW, Casale T, Chavannes NH, Correia de Sousa J, Cruz AA, Cuello-Garcia CA, Demoly P, Dykewicz M, Etxeandia-Ikobaltzeta I, Florez ID, Fokkens W, Fonseca J, Hellings PW, Klimek L, Kowalski S, Kuna P, Laisaar KT, Larenas-Linnemann DE, Lødrup Carlsen KC, Manning PJ, Meltzer E, Mullol J, Muraro A, O’Hehir R, Ohta K, Panzner P, Papadopoulos N, Park HS, Passalacqua G, Pawankar R, Price D, Riva JJ, Roldan Y, Ryan D, Sadeghirad B, Samolinski B, Schmid-Grendelmeier P, Sheikh A, Togias A, Valero A, Valiulis A, Valovirta E, Ventresca M, Wallace D, Waserman S, Wickman M, Wiercioch W, Yepes Nunez JJ, Zhang L, Zhang Y, Zidarn M, Zuberbier T, Schünemann HJ. Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) guidelines-2016 revision. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017 Oct;140(4):950-8. doi: 10.1016/ j.jaci.2017.03.050, PMID 28602936.



How to Cite




Review Article(s)