THE EFFECT OF BLACK CUMIN SEED OIL CONSUMPTION ON CLOTTING TIME, BLEEDING TIME, AND PLATELET COUNTS IN HEALTHY-SMOKER VOLUNTEERS
Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the effect of consumption of black cumin seed oil (BCSO) on platelet count, clotting time (CT), and bleeding time (BT) in healthy-smoker volunteers (HSV).
Methods: Participants were 39 healthy male smokers aged 18-66 y. Participants were divided into four groups randomly. The treatment group received BCSO for thirties days in 3x1, 3x2, and 3x3 capsules/day doses. The placebo group received a placebo preparation. We measured CT, BT, and platelet count on day 31. An analysis of the mean difference between CT, BT, and platelet counts was performed using one-way ANOVA.
Result: The results showed that the CT, BT, and platelet counts in all groups were within normal. Consumption of BCSO for 30 d did not affect CT, BT, and platelet counts of HSV. The results of the analysis of the mean difference test between groups of CT, BT, and platelet counts indicated that there was no difference with p>0.05.
Conclusion: We concluded that the 30-day BCSO consumption did not affect the CT, BT, and platelet count values in HSV.
2. Middlekauff HR, Park J, Moheimani RS. Adverse effects of cigarette and noncigarette smoke exposure on the autonomic nervous system: mechanisms and implications for cardiovascular risk. J Am Coll Cardiol 2014;64:1740–50.
3. Thorne D, Leverette R, Breheny D, Lloyd M, McEnaney S, Whitwell J, et al. Genotoxicity evaluation of tobacco and nicotine delivery products: part one. Mouse lymphoma assay. Food Chem Toxicol 2019;132:110584.
4. Chan SMH, Selemidis S, Bozinovski S, Vlahos R. Pathobiological mechanisms underlying metabolic syndrome (MetS)in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): clinical significance and therapeutic strategies. Pharmacol Ther 2019;198:160–88.
5. Hidayati TI, Fatimah SN, Iskandar SH. Normal fasting blood sugar levels and medication adherence improve the quality of life of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in primary health facilities. Asian J Pharm Clin 2018;11:472-7.
6. Staplin N, Haynes R, Herrington WG, Reith C, Cass A, Fellström B, et al. Smoking and adverse outcomes in patients with CKD: The study of heart and renal protection (SHARP). Am J Kidney Dis 2016;68:371–80.
7. Nagasawa Y, Yamamoto R, Rakugi H, Isaka Y. Cigarette smoking and chronic kidney diseases. Hypertens Res 2012;35:261–5.
8. Kalkhoran S, Benowitz NL, Rigotti NA. Prevention and treatment of tobacco use: JACC health promotion series. J Am Coll Cardiol 2018;72:1030–45.
9. Koukouli F, Changeux JP. Do nicotinic receptors modulate high-order cognitive processing? Trends Neurosci 2020;43;550-64.
10. Ibrahim H, Schutt RC, Hannawi B, DeLao T, Barker CM, Kleiman NS. Association of immature platelets with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. J Am Coll Cardiol 2014;64:2122–9.
11. Hirmerova J. Homocysteine and venous thromboembolism-is there any link? Cor Vasa 2013;55:248–58.
12. De Farias Leal AA, Palmeira AC, Almeida De Castro GM, Da Silva Simoes MO, Ramos AT, Muniz Medeiros CC. Homocysteine: cardiovascular risk factor in children and adolescents? Rev da Assoc Medica Bras 2013;59:622–8.
13. Liu L, Cao J, Fan L, Hu G, Hu Y, Zhu B, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for aspirin resistance in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. Int J Gerontol 2011;5:112–6.
14. Hainsworth AH, Yeo NE, Weekman EM, Wilcock DM. Homocysteine, hyperhomocysteinemia and vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID). Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2016;1862:1008–17.
15. Alkhoury K, Parkin SM, Homer Vanniasinkam S, Graham AM. Chronic homocysteine exposure upregulates endothelial adhesion molecules and mediates leukocyte: endothelial cell interactions under flow conditions. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2011;41:429–35.
16. Gresele P. Platelets in hematologic and cardiovascular disorders: a clinical handbook. USA: Cambridge University Press; 2008. p. 511.
17. Lincoff AM. Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibitors in cardiovascular disease 2nd Ed. Berlin: Springer Science and Business Media; 2003.
18. Pedersen KM, Colak Y, Ellervik C, Hasselbalch HC, Bojesen SE, Nordestgaard BG. Smoking and increased white and red blood cells: a mendelian randomization approach in the copenhagen general population study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2019;39:965–77.
19. Al-Quorain AA, Bamosa AO, Pal K, Durmaz MS, Yilmaz S, Keven A, et al. Nigella sativa. Saudi J Med Med Sci 2015;3:1-6.
20. Akrom, Mustofa. Black cumin seed oil increases phagocytic activity and secretion of IL-12 by macrophages. Biomed Res 2017;28:5241-6.
21. Krishnan N, Muthukrishnan S. Effect of Nigella sativa seed extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. J Acute Med 2012;2:107–13.
22. Bourgou S, Pichette A, Marzouk B, Legault J. Bioactivities of black cumin essential oil and its main terpenes from Tunisia. South African J Bot 2010;76:210–6.
23. Azzubaidi MS, Mizher H, Alattraqchi AG. Hypotensive activity of thymoquinone in normotensive rats and its receptor mechanisms. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;9:216-8.
24. Yimer EM, Tuem KB, Karim A, Ur-Rehman N, Anwar F. Nigella sativa L.(black cumin): a promising natural remedy for wide range of illnesses. Evidence Based Compl Alt Med 2019;2019:1-16.
25. Nithya G, Mani R, Sakthisekaran D. Oral administration of thymoquinone attenuates Benzo (a) pyrene induced lung carcinogenesis in male swiss albino mice. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:260–3.
26. Hidayati T, Akrom, Indrayanti, Sagiran. Chemopreventive effect of black cumin seed oil (BCSO) by increasing p53 expression in dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)-induced sprague dawley rats. Res J Chem Environ 2019;23:140-8.
27. Salem ML. Immunomodulatory and therapeutic properties of the Nigella sativa L. seed. Int Immunopharmacol 2005;5:1749-70.
28. Burits M, Bucar F. Antioxidant activity of Nigella sativa essential oil. Phyther Res 2000;14:323-8.
29. Che?chowska M, Ambroszkiewicz J, Gajewska J, Mazur J, Lewandowski L, Re?ko Zachara M, et al. Influence of active exposure to tobacco smoke on nitric oxide status of pregnant women. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018;15:2719.
30. Fajar DR, Akrom, Darmawan E. The influence of black cumin seed oil therapy with dosage of 1.5 ml/day and 3 ml/day to interleukin-21 (IL-21) expression of the patients with metabolic syndrome risk. IOP Conf Ser Mater Sci Eng 2017;259:012012.
31. Hidayati T, Akrom, Indrayanti, Sagiran. Evaluation of the black cumin seed oil role (BCSO) on a decline in eNOS expression and plasma NO levels: initial studies kemopreventive BCSO for lung cancer. Int J Biosci Biochem Bioinforma 2017;7:162–8.
32. Sack MN, Fyhrquist FY, Saijonmaa OJ, Fuster V, Kovacic JC. Basic biology of oxidative stress and the cardiovascular system: part 1 of a 3-part series. J Am Coll Cardiol 2017;70:196-211.
33. Romieu I, Castro Giner F, Kunzli N, Sunyer J. Air pollution, oxidative stress and dietary supplementation: a review. Eur Resp J 2008;31:179-97.
34. Farkhondeh T, Samarghandian S, Borji A. An overview on cardioprotective and anti-diabetic effects of thymoquinone. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2017;10:849–54.
35. Elkhalifa A. Effects of cigarette smoking on coagulation screening tests and platelet counts in a sudanese male adults population. Saudi Med J 2018;39:897–901.
36. Lowery CL, Elliott C, Cooper A, Hadden C, Sonon RN, Azadi P, et al. Cigarette smoking-associated alterations in serotonin/adrenalin signaling pathways of platelets. J Am Heart Assoc 2017;6:6–8.
37. Malenica M, Prnjavorac B, Bego T, Dujic T, Semiz S, Skrbo S, et al. Effect of cigarette smoking on haematological parameters in healthy population. Med Arch 2017;71:132–6.
38. Gonçalves RB, Coletta RD, Silverio KG, Benevides L, Casati MZ, Da Silva JS, et al. Impact of smoking on inflammation: overview of molecular mechanisms. Inflamm Res 2011;60:409–24.
39. Morita H, Ikeda H, Haramaki N, Eguchi H, Imaizumi T. Only two-week smoking cessation improves platelet aggregability and intraplatelet redox imbalance of long-term smokers. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;45:589–94.
40. Zulkifli MH, Viswenaden P, Jasamai M, Azmi N, Yaakob NS. Potential roles of 5-HT 3 receptor (5-HT 3 R) antagonists in modulating the effects of nicotine. Biomed Pharmacother 2019;112:108630.
41. Bounous DI, Wyatt RD, Gibbs PS, Kilburn JV, Depart-CFQ. Normal hematologic and serum biochemical reference intervals for juvenile wild turkeys. J Wild Dis 2000;36:393–6.
42. Akrom A, Darmawan E. Tolerability and safety of black cumin seed oil (BCSO) administration for 20 d in healthy subjects. Biomed Res 2017;28:4196-201.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.