NEPHROPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF KIRINYUH (CHROMOLAENA ODORATA L) IN GENTAMICIN INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN WISTAR RATS
Objective: The global prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) was 9.1% (697.5 million cases). Chronic kidney disease can occur, one of which is caused by drug nephrotoxicity. Nephrotoxicity remains major problem for its effective long-term clinical use. Gentamicin is known to cause many morphologic, metabolic and functional alterations in the kidney and the specificity of gentamicin nephrotoxicity is related to its accumulation in the renal proximal convoluted tubules leading to tubular necrosis. Nephrotoxicity can be prevented by nephroprotective by giving antioxidants. Kirinyuh leaves (Chromolaena odorata L.) has potential as a nephroprotective because it contains chemical compounds that have antioxidant activity.
Methods: Wistar rats as many as 25 animals were divided into five groups, namely the normal control negative control (gentamicin 60 mg/kg BW rat), and kirinyuh leaf extract at a dose of 225, 450 and 675 mg/kg BW treatment was carried out for 10 d. Serum creatinine and urea levels were evaluated along with histopathological investigation in various experimental groups of rats. Data analysis using the One Way Anova test and continued LSD test.
Results: Serum creatinine was a significant difference between groups P = 0.000 (P<0.05). The results of LSD analysis on creatinine levels showed a significant difference between the normal group and the negative group (P = 0.00); negative group to dose group 1 (P = 0.020) (P<0.05); dose 2 (P = 0.005) (P<0.05); and dose 3 (P = 0.000) (P<0.05). Dose 3 had the lowest creatinine level compared to other dose groups.
Conclusion: Serum creatinine level at dose 675 significantly changes compare by a negative group of other dose groups. Renal histopathology results showed that the group with a dose of 450 mg/BW of rats had the lowest necrosis rate compared to the negative control group and other dose groups.
2. Nathan R Hill, Samuel T Fatoba, Jason L Oke, Jennifer A Hirst CAO, Daniel S. Lasserson1 FDRH, 1. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Nephrol 2016;71:244–54.
3. Indonesian Ministry of Health. Indonesia Basic Health Research 2018. Indonesia Ministry of Health; 2018. p. 1–100. Available from: http://www.depkes.go.id/resources/download/info-terkini/hasil-riskesdas-2018.pdf [Last accessed on 15 Aug 2020]
4. Adil M, Kandhare AD, Dalvi G, Ghosh P, Venkata S, Raygude KS, et al. Ameliorative effect of berberine against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats via attenuation of oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction. Ren Fail 2016;38:996–1006.
5. El Badwi AOB, EHAG. Haemato-biochemical effects of aqueous extract of khaya senegalensis stem bark on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in wistar rats. J Biol Sci 2012;12:361–6.
6. Randjelovic P, Veljkovic S, Stojiljkovic N, Sokolovic D, Ilic I. Gentamicin nephrotoxicity in animals: current knowledge and future perspectives. EXCLI J 2017;16:388–99.
7. Gheith I, El-Mahmoudy A. Novel and classical renal biomarkers as evidence for the nephroprotective effect of Carica papaya leaf extract. Biosci Rep 2018;38:1–10.
8. Saputra A, Gani A, Erlidawati E. Antioxidant activity of siam gulma (Chromoleana Odorata L.) using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil method. J IPA Pembelajaran IPA 2017;1:131–42.
9. Her N, Parnanto R, Setyowati R, Utami R. Nur her riyadi parnanto 1), Rini Setyowati 1), Rohula Utami 1); 2013. p. VI.
10. Buckley JP. Pharmaceutical Sciences (Np). Science (80-) 1966;151:874–5.
11. Sarian MN, Ahmed QU, Mat So’Ad SZ, Alhassan AM, Murugesu S, Perumal V, et al. Antioxidant and antidiabetic effects of flavonoids: a structure-activity relationship based study. Biomed Res Int 2017. DOI:10.1155/2017/8386065
12. Zhang H, Li X, Wu K, Wang M, Liu P, Wang X, et al. Antioxidant activities and chemical constituents of flavonoids from the flower of Paeonia ostii. Molecules 2017;22:5.
13. Mathew S, Abraham TE, Zakaria ZA. Reactivity of phenolic compounds towards free radicals under in vitro conditions. J Food Sci Technol 2015;52:5790–8.
14. Ehsani V, Amirteimoury M, Taghipour Z, Shamsizadeh A, Bazmandegan G, Rahnama A, et al. Protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of pistacia vera against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Ren Fail 2017;39:519–25.
15. Weiner ID, Mitch WE, Sands JM. Urea and ammonia metabolism and the control of renal nitrogen excretion. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2015;10:1444–58.
16. Nerdy N, Ritarwan K. Hepatoprotective activity and nephroprotective activity of peel extract from three varieties of the passion fruit (Passiflora sp.) in the albino rat. Maced J Med Sci 2019;7:536–42.
17. Sonkar N, Ganeshpurkar A, Yadav P, Dubey S, Bansal D, Dubey N. An experimental evaluation of the nephroprotective potential of Butea monosperma extracts in albino rats. Indian J Pharmacol 2014;46:109–12.
18. Randjelovic P, Veljkovic S, Stojiljkovic N, Velickovic L, Sokolovic D, Stoiljkovic M, et al. Protective effect of selenium on gentamicin-induced oxidative stress and nephrotoxicity in rats. Drug Chem Toxicol 2012;35:141–8.
19. Geng R, Ma L, Liu L, Xie Y. Influence of bovine serum albumin-flavonoid interaction on the antioxidant activity of dietary flavonoids: new evidence from electrochemical quantification. Molecules 2019;24:70.
20. Kumar S, Pandey AK. Chemistry and biological activities of flavonoids: an overview. Sci World J 2013. DOI:10.1155/2013/162750
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.